A Prospective Study on the Incidence and Risk Factors of Age Related Macular Degeneration among Elderly Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India
Aim: To determine the incidence and risk factors causing age related macular degeneration in elderly patients who are above 50 years of age. Materials and methods: 500 patients attending the Ophthalmology out-patient department (OPD) from August 2020 to January 2021, aged more than 50 years were included in the study. Written and informed consent was taken. A detailed ophthalmic history including age, gender and history of hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipdemia, chronic smoking and alcoholism, diet history, family history of defective vision was taken from all patients. Ocular examination included best corrected visual acuity testing for both distance and near vision, thorough Slit lamp bio microscopic examination of the anterior segment, fundus examination with +90 Dioptre lens and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results: out of 500 patients, 15 patients had ARMD. Of which 4 patients (26.66%) had unilateral ARMD and 11 patients (73.33%) had bilateral ARMD. 8 patients were males and 7 were females. 10 out of 15 patients (66.6%) were above 80 years of age. 7 patients (46.66%) had a history of chronic smoking. 8 patients (53.33%) were hypertensive of which 6 were on regular treatment and 2 were not on regular treatment. 2 patients (13%) were on treatment for dyslipidemia. 1 patient had vision less than 3/60 in the better eye. Conclusion: Risk of developing ARMD increases with advancing age and chronic smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia were associating risk factors.