A REVIEW ARTICLE ON DIAGNOSTIC DEVELOPMENTS FOR CONTROLLING COVID-19
Author(s): Ayushi Gupta, Pramita Muntode Gharde*
SARS-CoV-2 also known as COVID-19 first recognized in Wuhan district of China immediately become a pandemic wreaking havoc across globe, which mostly is quite significant. Initial cases of this disease are assumed to be acquired from zoonotic origin and the virus is found to have a recombinant genetic material made of Bat CoV-2 and unknown CoV-2. ACE-2 receptors are principle receptors for interaction with human nasal epithelium via which they enter and invade the respiratory airways and finally lung tissues causing respiratory symptoms like cough, breathlessness and in severe cases ARDS. It is mainly transmitted by via aerosols released in air while coughing, sneezing and through objects in contact of the diseased like door handles, pen and other formites. Elderly population and middle age groups with comorbidities like DM, CKD for the most part are the most targeted groups. The high infectivity and rapid spread of disease specifically has warranted development of fast, really effective and accurate diagnostic test. Specimen usually collected for various tests include blood, nasopharyngeal, oropharangeal swab, serum. Basically the diagnostic tools available are (a) Molecular methods like RT-PCR, (b) Antibody detection by serological sort of methods, (c) Radiological methods to really detect organ changes, (d) Rapid antigen tests, (e) Various non-specific tests. Novel methods have been also devised like LAMP and SHERLOCK based on CRISPER technology in order to make diagnosis of disease much less tedious and much more accessible to population. Development of these novel methods is still under progress. In this review articles above enumerated diagnostic methods essentially have been summarized highlighting the most of effective tools for early identification and detection of COVID-19.