A Three Step Screening Protocol for Early Detection of Renal Abnormalities in Asymptomatic Indian School Children
Background & Objectives: Early screening of asymptomatic school children is of paramount important in the early detection and treatment of silent renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of renal abnormalities in asymptomatic school going children using a three step screening protocol of dipstick, microscopy and renal ultrasound examination. Methods: A total of 2722 school children (1638 boys and 1084 girls), aged 5–19 years, were screened for urinary abnormalities using dipstick, microscopy and renal ultrasound examination. 77 children found positive by dipstick, were screened by microscopy after 2-4 weeks and 44 children, found positive by microscopy, were screened by Renal Ultrasound Examination. Results: Most common abnormality found by dipstick method and microscopy was isolated pyuria followed by isolated haematuria. Renal ultrasound detected 2 children (1 male, 1 female) with hydro ureter with hydronephrosis, 1 female child with small concretion in kidney, and 1 male child with generalised enhancement of echo texture in kidney. Conclusion: Isolated pyuria, followed by isolated haematuria was the most common abnormalities. Such a three step screening protocol if routinely employed for early detection and treatment of renal abnormalities can decrease the incidence CKD and ESRD.