Antibacterial Activity of Alcoholic Cinnamon Extract and Chlorhexidine on Streptococcus Mitis as Primary Colonizers in Periodontal Disease
Background: Cinnamon is one of the oldest herbs that has been used by humankind for cooking, seasoning, bakery, food preservation, and drinks. Recently, researchers have been focusing on the antibacterial effect of cinnamon, this study is aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of alcoholic cinnamon extract on Streptococcus mitis (S.mitis) in vitro. And the combination of chlorhexidine (CHX) with cinnamon alcoholic extract relationship type. Periodontal diseases are one of the most common diseases affecting humanity. Biofilm is the causative factor for periodontal disease. Biofilm is composed of various microorganisms. Streptococci Mitis is one of the most common early colonizers within dental biofilms, which cause periodontal disease. Reduction of the microorganism found in biofilm leads to a reduction in periodontal diseases, thus antimicrobials agents have been studied as an adjunct for ordinary therapy. Chlorhexidine is the most known agent that has been used as a chemical plaque controlling agent. It has been reported to be the most active agent used in mouthwash. As well as CHX is one of the most important known antiseptics, low concentration is bacteriostatic and on high concentration, it is bactericidal.
Aim/Objectives: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of alcoholic cinnamon extracts on Streptococcus mitis bacteria. To study the combination between Chlorhexidine and alcoholic cinnamon MIC when mixed.
Materials and Methods: The first step of the present study was to prepare the alcoholic cinnamon extract, the process of extraction type was maceration type. The second step of the present study was preparing and isolating Streptococcus mitis. The samples were taken from supra-gingival plaque using cotton swabs of 20 volunteers. Followed by morphological and microscopical examination, in addition to, biochemical tests. Vitek 2 machines were used to ensure the correct identification of Streptococcus mitis. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation, LSD was done for the analysis of MIC of (alcoholic cinnamon extracts) against (Streptococcus mitis Bacteria). The significance of all the statistical tests was determined at p<0.05 using SPSS (Statistical Package for social science) version 25 software.
Results: Alcoholic cinnamon extract showed a higher antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mitis than CHX. The combination of the combination between alcoholic cinnamon extract and CHX gave the highest antibacterial effect than each one separated (synergistic).
Conclusion: Cinnamon is a potent antimicrobial agent. It is an effective, safe, and cost affordable material that can be used as an alternative agent for chlorhexidine in oral hygiene products