Anti-Bacterial Effects of Commiphora Myrrha and Ziziphus Spina-Christ Leaves Extracts Against Streptococcus Mitis (Primary Colonizer of Dental Plaque) In vitro Study
Background: Dental plaque plays a major role in the etiology of periodontal diseases and the early colonizers of dental plaque are of great importance in the succession stages of biofilm formation such as Streptococcus mitis. Nowadays there is a need to find naturally occurring substances from plants with antimicrobial activity as an alternative to available used Chlorohexidine.
Aims: To investigate in vitro antibacterial effects of alcoholic Commiphora Myrrha and Ziziphus spina-christi leaves extracts alone and in Combination against Streptococcus mitis. Materials and Methods: At first tacking plaque samples from 15 patients with gingivitis-dental biofilm-induced then morphological, microscopical examination, biochemical tests and Vitek 2 were used to confirm identification of Streptococcus mitis. The Commiphora Myrrha and Ziziphus spina-christi leaves extracted by using ethanol alcohol. The susceptibility of bacteria against the extracts, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration were determined separately and in Combination compared with chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% and deionized water.
Results: The ethanol extracts exhibited considerable antibacterial effects against Streptococcus mitis with various degrees of growth inhibition zones. It was shown that Combination extracts was more antibacterial effects compared to Chlorohexidine then Myrrha and lastly Ziziphus leaves extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts ranged from (0.2-0.6 g/ml). The minimum bactericidal concentration of alcoholic extracts ranged from (0.4- 0.8 g/ml).
Conclusion: Alcoholic Combination extracts showed higher antibacterial activity with all concentration against Streptococcus mitis than Myrrha and Ziziphus leaves extracts were even higher than Chlorohexidine when used at higher concentration, so it can be used as an alternative to Chlorohexidine.