Clinical Significance of Antibodies to Soluble Extractable Nuclear Antigens (Anti-ENA) in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disorder
Author(s): Deepmala Budhrani, Pooja Mandalia, Neela V. Bhuptani
Introduction: Autoimmune diseases occur in 3-5% of the population. Alteration in immune system occurs due to various genetic & environmental factors leading to development of auto reactive phenomena that can be detected.
Aims & objectives: 1) Clinical diagnosis & its serological correlation. 2) To diagnose the diseases at its earliest stage and to intervene before serious end organ damage occurs. 3) To assess the prognosis of the disease.
Method: A group of 90 patients were studied who clinically showed signs of systemic autoimmune disease. All patients were subjected to Anti-ENA profile to see the possible correlation between clinical diagnosis and serological markers.
Result: 90 patients enrolled in study presented with predominant clinical manifestation of polyarthritis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, fever and skin manifestations. Based on clinical examination various connective tissue disorder diagnosis was confirmed with serological testing in 63% cases while deferred in 37% cases. According to clinical diagnosis out of 90 patients, diagnoses were kept of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) (43), Systemic sclerosis (SS) (34), Dermatomyositis (DM) (01), Overlap syndrome (12). After serological testing diagnosis found to be SLE (28), SS (22), Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) (29), DM (01), undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) (08), Overlap syndrome (02).
Conclusion: From this study patients with one or more than one connective tissue disorder where diagnosed early. It is important to correlate clinical diagnosis with serological testing (Anti-ENA) so that disease can be treated early before end organ damage occurs and prognostic outcome is also determined.