Correlation of Placental Morphometry with Fetal Outcome in Preeclamptic Pregnancies
Author(s): A Prathiba, Dinisha Einstien*, Sudhakar R and Saraswathi M
Introduction: Placental examination in a problematic pregnancy is of prime importance, in yielding valuable information about the duration and nature of the process that occurred throughout the pregnancy. This includes a thorough and thoughtful gross and morphometric examination, careful sectioning and clarity of the basic microscopic findings along with the various changes. Reduced placental perfusion happens to be the unique feature of placenta, resulting in preeclampsia. The placenta is also called the mirror of intrauterine fetal experience and remains the best record of every infant’s prenatal experience. The pathological changes in the placenta adversely affect the fetal outcome. This study is an attempt to observe and compare the morphometric measurements of normal and preeclamptic placentae and to correlate the same with fetal outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the placental morphometry in normal and hypertensive pregnancies and to correlate the fetal outcome with morphometric findings of placenta. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study a total of 200 placentae were examined. The study group contained 100 pre-eclamptic placentae from singleton pregnancies and the control group contained 100 placentae from singleton normotensive pregnancies. The corresponding fetal birth weight and APGAR scores were also recorded. The placenta was then observed in fresh state and weighed. The placental disc measurements were taken. The placental surface area and placental volume were calculated. The placental morphometry was then compared with the fetal outcome. All statistical analyses were done with IBM SPSS software version 28. Result: We observed that with increasing severity of preeclampsia, there is a significant decrease in the placental weight, volume and surface area and corresponding reduction in the mean fetal birth weight and fetal outcome. Conclusion: We suggest that inclusion of in-utero measurement of placental volume in routine monitoring of fetal wellbeing in preeclamptic pregnancies will help in better management of at risk fetus.