Dental Staining Associated with Various Types of Coffee
Teeth staining are one of the biggest concerns among people who care about aesthetics. Coffee consumption is linked to teeth staining because it can cause teeth discoloration in many ways. One of the widely acknowledged theories claims that acidic drinks can add more roughness to the surface of enamel, making it more susceptible to stain. Aims: This paper aimed to assess the degree of staining associated with different types of commonly consumed coffee and the effect of coffee temperature. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human teeth were assigned to six different groups, then their roots were sealed using three barrier layers. The baseline shades were measured using a colorimeter. The teeth in each group were immersed in a different type of coffee. The groups were further subdivided into hot coffee groups and cold coffee groups. The teeth were immersed for 12 days, after which the change in colour (?E) was measured. Results: The ?E scores of all groups were >3.3, which is considered unfavourable. All the teeth that were incubated in cold temperature showed no significant difference in staining among the different types of coffee. The teeth that were incubated in hot solutions showed significant staining in the sweetened coffee (P=10.4) and Turkish coffee (P=16.2) in comparison to the other coffee types. The remaining types of coffee (Arabic, instant and latte) showed a minimum degree of staining almost matching the ?E of the control group. The addition of sugar to coffee can worsen staining. In contrast, the addition of milk or water reduces staining. Conclusion: Turkish coffee and sweetened coffee have the highest degree of staining; the higher the temperature of the coffee the greater the dental staining. Recommendations: The study recommends drinking sugar-free coffee, moreover, the addition of milk or water can decrease the amount of staining.