Epidemiology of Occupational Diseases in the Russian Federation Characteristics Causes and Risks
The epidemiology of occupational diseases examines the distribution of events and determinants related to health, as well as their relationship with the work environment, risks and prevention. The authors determined that this study is aimed at epidemiological characteristics of occupational pathologies in the Russian Federation for 2014-2018, considering risks and causes. We analyzed the official data of the state reports of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights and Human Well-Being Protection “On the State of Sanitary and Epidemiological Well-Being of the Population of the Russian Federation” from 2014 to 2018. It was found that the incidence of occupational diseases decreased by 32.7%. Occupational diseases are most often recorded among men (2014 - 85.3%; 2018 - 87.76%). During periodic medical examinations of workers, professional pathologies are recorded more often than with active address. By the course nature, the largest share in the structure of occupational diseases is accounted for by chronic pathologies (>90%). Sensorineural hearing loss is the leading nosological form due to the influence of physical factors of production processes (>50%). Mining is a leading industry for the registration of occupational diseases among workers. Noise prevails in the structure of analysis of industrial enterprises' workplaces that do not meet sanitary and epidemiological requirements for physical factors. Imperfections in technological processes (>49%), structural deficiencies in labor means (>34%), imperfections in jobs (>3.4%) and sanitary requirements (>2%) are the leading causes of the development of chronic occupational pathologies. Pathologies associated with exposure to physical factors (>46%) prevail in the structure of occupational diseases for 2014-2018.