Evaluating the association between first trimester screening tests and adverse perinatal outcomes
Author(s): Fariba Seyedoshohadaei, Nasrin Soofizadeh, Masomeh Rezaie, Sirous Hemmatpour, Elnaz Agha Aziziz Kheyavi
Prenatal screening tests are not diagnostic and only show and determine the risk of fetal abnormalities. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the results of double marker test and nuchal translucency (NT) in first trimester with adverse perinatal outcomes (Low-Birth-Weight, Small for Gestational Age, Intrauterine Growth Restriction, Aneuploidy, and fetal abnormalities) in pregnant women. This nested case control study was conducted on two groups of pregnant women. In case group (n=46) the result of double test in first trimester was positive (more than 1.50) and nuchal translucency was also positive (more than 3 mm). In control group (n = 77) the result of double test and nuchal translucency was negative. For each woman, data including demographic data, gestational age, gravidity, parity, number of abortion, weight and height of pregnant women, and the results of double screening test and nuchal translucency were recorded in a check list. For women who had positive test, amniocentesis (in 16 weeks of pregnancy) was performed. Borderline cases were followed using cell free fetal DNA or quadruple screening test. All women were followed during pregnancy until delivery. The prevalence of Down syndrome, intrauterine growth restriction and fetal abnormality in case group was more than the control group and difference was significant statistically (P = .001). Trisomy 18 and 13 were not found in the two groups. In terms of the frequency of spinal cord defects, respiratory distress, SGA, LBW and infant mortality there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Our findings showed that adverse perinatal outcomes in screening positive cases were higher. Therefore the double marker test could be helpful in detecting fetal outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction and fetal structural abnormalities.