Evaluation of Mineral Drinking Water in Duhok City
Background: Mineral water samples are taken from nine different factories for the production of mineral drinking water in Dohuk Governorate. After conducting all the physical, chemical and bacteriological tests in the laboratories of the Environment Department, it is found that all the results obtained are within the international standards, as shown in the attached tables in the research. This indicates that the groundwater is water suitable for human use, in addition to treating it with the best modern scientific techniques available in these laboratories. It also indicates the interest of quality control departments in maintaining the cleanliness and health of drinking mineral water because of its importance in human life. Aim: The present study was undertaken to determine the physico-chemical properties and heavy metals in mineral drinking water samples collected from different sources in other factories producing mineral drinking water in Duhok. Methods: Total number of 100 bottles 1L water samples was collected from different nine factories products. The gross appearance, taste, odor, temperature, pH, physical, chemical and bacteriological tests will be started. Results: Chemical analysis: The chemical analysis involves both the in-laboratory analysis (TDS and TSS) and the on-site analysis (pH, turbidity, and conductivity) as shown in the table1 and as follow. pH is regarded as a significant parameter of water quality. The pH measurement portrays the acidity and alkalinity of the water. Samples with a p.H that is less than 7.0 are regarded as acidic. Samples with a p.H higher than 7.0 are regarded as alkaline. Water that is acidic can result in metal pipes and plumbing system corrosion. Meanwhile, alkaline water depicts disinfection in water. According to the WHO and NDWQS, the p.H of normal drinking water should range between (6.5 and 8.5). The pH values of all samples of mineral drinking water in all factories are found between the range between (6.7 and 7.4) and the turbidity is (0.2- 0.4), and the EC in us is(176.4-234) the total dissolved solids (112.7-150) and the total alkalinity is (46-94), and the total hardness is (72-104) and the result for the element study in this search are Ca (16-27.2), Mg (5.9-11.7), Cl (4.0-14.0), S (9.7-58.2), Na(1.2-29.0), K (0.2-1.0), N(0.2-15.3) respectively. Chemical measurement of the elements (Pb, Zn, Fe, Ni) in the mineral drinking water The results for the elements that were measured in the mineral drinking water as shown in table 2 and as follows Pb (Nil), Zn (0.021-0.0471), Fe (0.002-0.0141), Ni (0.002-0.0031), respectively for all factories. Bacteriological analysis of the mineral drinking water: The results for the bacteriological analysis in the mineral drinking water for all factories are shown in table 3 and as follow. Residual free chlorine (0.0), the presumptive total coliform (<2.2), the confirmatory coliform (<2.2), the confirmatory faucal coliform (<2.2), and the results of the E-coli is (0.0) respectively. Conclusion: This study confirms the estimation and measurement of heavy and minute metals and other inorganic elements in the mineral drinking water used by people in this province. After obtaining the results of this study, it is found that the concentrations of all the samples are within the international measurement, although there is a slight difference in some of the results, and it is less than the level of risk.