Expression of Collagen 1 and Heat Shock Protein 47 in Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis (Immunohistochemical Study)
Background: The gingiva is part of the masticatory mucosa that acts as a barrier against mechanical stress and pathogen. It is made up of a dense, vascular fibrous tissue with a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, surrounded by mucous membrane that is attached firmly to the periosteum of the alveolar processes of the maxilla and mandible. Gingival enlargement is one of most commonly presenting gingival disease. Clinically described as gingival enlargement or overgrowth. Gingival enlargement may be hereditary or acquired. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare form of gingival enlargement that effects the mandible and maxilla and is characterized by gingiva that grows slowly and progressively over a period of time. Excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix components seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of the gingival fibromatosis; however, the biochemical and molecular mechanism that induce such pathological condition remain undefined. Aim of the study: was to evaluate the expression of collagen 1 and heat shock protein 47 in hereditary gingival fibromatosis (Immunohistochemical) and to evaluate Immunohistochemical expression of collagen 1 heat shock protein 47 in hereditary gingival fibromatosis influenced by age, sex and site. Materials and methods: This study included 36 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks, eighteen of which were collection of sample from archives of the department of oral pathology, the college of dentistry, University of Baghdad between1972 and 2021 diagnose as hereditary gingival fibromatosis. The second group were composed of eighteen formalin-paraffin embedded tissue blocks which diagnosed as clinical healthy gingival tissue obtain from patient that will undergo gingivactomy due to esthetic demand such as crown lengthening ,gummy smile or prior to teeth extraction Result: significant increase in the Immunohistochemical expression of collagen 1 and HSP47 were noted in HGF tissue compared with controls (P value=0.0001 and 0.0001 respectively).moreover, no significant difference of study group (p>0.05) regarding age, sex, and site. Conclusion: Gingival tissue fibrosis in hereditary gingival fibromatosis was observed to be associated with increased collagen 1 and HSP47 synthesis. collagen 1 together with heat shock protien47 has important role in the pathogenesis of hereditary gingival fibromatosis.