Histological Changes of Gall Bladder Mucosa and Its Correlation with Various Types of Cholelithiasis
Introduction: The gallbladder is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that stores and concentrates bile. Histologically, the gallbladder consists of three layers: mucosa, muscularis externa, and adventitia or serosa. Aim & Objective: To investigate the histological changes of gall bladder mucosa in relation to different gallstones whether it was cholesterol, pigment, or mixed stone. Material and Method: This study was done in the Department of Anatomy in association with the Department of Pathology and the Department of Surgery, SRMS-IMS, Bareilly. A total number of 104 specimens were selected from gallbladders after cholecystectomy with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of chronic calculus cholecystitis. Paraffin sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin to demonstrate the general histology. The gallbladders were divided into groups depending on the type of gallstones found; cholesterol, pigment or mixed stones. Result: The histological changes like epithelial ulceration and antral metaplasia were found to be more obvious in gall bladders with cholesterol stones, whereas mucosal hyperplasia and muscular hypertrophy were more prominent in gallbladder with pigment stones. Conclusion: Gallstones are accompanied by major changes in the gallbladder epithelium. These changes were clearer in gallbladder mucosa with cholesterol stones may be due to the large size stones leading to more irritation to the mucosa.