Incidence of Diabetes in Smokers: Our Hospital Results
Author(s): Atif Ahmed, Waseem Raja Memon, Sant Das, Muhammad Toqeer, Kumar Lal and Muhammad Amjad Kalhoro
Objective: To demonstrate the relationship of smoking with type- 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and methods: This study was conducted at Department of Medicine, Bilawal Medical College LUMHS Jamshoro, and Pakistan from January 2021 to June 2021. Researchers included 100 smokers older than 35 years of either gender who had smoked less than five years and the control group had 100 non-cross-sectional individuals in the same age range. In addition to the age of beginning smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked on a daily basis, whether the patient is currently a smoker or an ex-smoker, and the total duration of smoking was taken from the patients. Patients with type-2 diabetes were asked about their age at diagnosis, the medication used, and whether the disease was controlled. The pathology laboratory or glucometer was used to test the patient's blood glucose levels. Other routine investigations were also performed as needed if needed. In this six-month study, 200 individuals were observed closely for diabetes mellitus (100 smokers and 100 non-smokers). There was a predominance of male gender among smokers and non-smokers with a mean age of 50.98*7.86 and 48.84*8.63. Of the smokers, 68 (68%) cases were identified as being diabetic, while of the non-smokers, 24 (24%) were identified as diabetic. Diabetic mellitus type 2 is directly associated with the number and duration of cigarettes smoked. Results: This was a study of six months comprising of two hundred people (hundred smokers and hundred non-smokers) were seen and evaluated thoroughly for diabetes mellitus. The average age ± SD for total smoker and non-smokers was approximately 50.98 ± 7.86 and 48.84 ± 8.63 with a clear predominance of male gender. In case of smoker group a total of diabetic individuals were 68 (68%) while in case of non-smokers the total number of diabetes was 24 (24%) individuals. The proportionality is directly related to the total number of cigarette smoked and the total duration of smoking. Conclusion: The risk of diabetes mellitus type-2 is independent of gender, depending mainly on the duration of smoking. Higher is the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals with a longer duration of smoking.