Malocclusion and its Association with Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Saudi Arabia
Author(s): M Zakirulla*, Fahad M Al Oudhah, Abdulaziz A Alasmari, Malak A Asiri, Eman A Alzahrani, Ghada H Alshahrani, Monerah M Alqahtani, Abdullah S Alqahtani, Sarah A Alshehri, Sara A AL Rasayn, Majed D Alshehri, Ibrahim A Alammari, Nasser M Alshahrani, Khaled A Asiri and Ibrahim A Alqahtani
Background: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is seen as an irregular respiratory pattern during sleep and has a spectrum of disorders that enhance in intensity from snoring to obstructive anti snoring (OSA). OSA is the most important presentation of Sleep-disordered breathing and will be now identified as a significant condition that has an effect on an estimated 1.2% to 5.7% of young children. Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of malocclusions in 3-to12-year-old children suffering from obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to evaluate the association between occlusal variables and OSA. Materials and Methods: The current study was a cross-sectional observational analytic study. Our study includes 150 children having the age group of 3 to 12 years who visit the Department of Pediatric Dentistry in the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University. One hundred and fifty children (range 3-12 years) were included whose parents reported snoring on a regular basis and signs or symptoms of OSA. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared in both Arabic and English languages and distributed to all the participants. All the data were collected and analyzed by using SPSS version 21. Results: The prevalence of malocclusion in OSA children was 26%. The distribution of other malocclusions trait recorded. Molar relation was seen in Class 1 (27.3%), Class II (9.3%) and Class III (7.3%). Other traits were observed as Over jet (8.7%), Overbite (4.7%), Anterior Open bite (6.7%), Posterior Cross bite (3.3%), Anterior Cross bite (6%) and Crowding (26%). Conclusion: Posterior cross bite and deviations in over jet and overbite seem to be significantly associated with OSA. The presence of these occlusal features shows the importance of an orthodontic evaluation in screening for paediatric OSA.