Micronucleus Assay Among A group of Smokers in Relation to Oral Health Status
Author(s): Umelbaneen J Alalawy*, Ahlam T Mohammed and Layla Sabri Yass
Background: Micronucleus assay is non-invasive, new methods for investigating DNA and chromosomal damage, cytokinetic defect, the regenerative ability of the tissue and cell death in the buccal cells that exfoliated by scraping. The different compounds in cigarette induced DNA strand breakage, gene mutation, chromosomal abnormality and micronuclei, all contribute to the carcinogenic effects of cigarette smoke. The aim of this study was to identify the genotoxic impact of smoking and its relation to oral health status.
Materials and methods: This study was carried on 70 males of (30-35) years of age (35 heavy smokers and 35 non-smokers). A cytobrush was used to obtain the smears and stained by pap stain. The oral health status was evaluated by using the DMFS, plaque and calculus indices, bleeding on probing, pocket depth and clinical attachment loss.
Result: Micronuclei and other abnormalities were significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers (p-value<0.05). The mean of plaque index was significantly different in smokers than that in non-smokers. The mean calculus index, bleeding on probing and DMFS statistically not significant (p-value>0.05). The percentages of pocket depth and clinical attachment loss among smokers were significantly higher than that in nonsmokers.
Conclusion: The smoking has a deteriorated effect on the oral cavity particularly on periodontium. The micronucleus assay is an excellent biomarker for detecting those who are at high risk of oral mutations as a result of smoking's adverse effects.