Morphologic Evaluation of the Permanent Mandibular First Molar within an Iraqi Population Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (Retrospective Study)
Purpose: To evaluate morphologic features of permanent mandibular first molars within an Iraqi population using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT).
Materials and methods: 384 CBCT images of Iraqi people aged 15-45 years old and obtained between 2016-2021 were collected from four different geographic regions of the country. Mandibular first molars were examined in three different planes to identify canal number and configuration (vertucci classification) for each root and tooth anomalies, including Middle Mesial Canal (MMC), Middle Distal Canal (MDC), Radix Entomolaris (RE), Radix Paramolaris (RP) and C-Shaped Canal (CSC).
Results: The predominant canal number in the mesial root was two (86%), configured either class IV or II. In the distal root, one canal with class I configuration was most frequently observed (66%). Regarding tooth anomalies, MMC was the most frequently recorded (13.22%), followed by RE (5.64%), MDC (5.48%) and CSC (0.64%). Majority of these parameters showed statistical relations with geographical region and patient sex.
Conclusion: Mandibular first molars have root canal complexities, with several anomalies that showed regional and gender differences in prevalence. CBCT is applicable method in diagnosing root canal complexity, but with caution on risks of radiation.