Morphological and Morphometric Analysis of Mandibular Foramen and Lingula with Reference to Gonial Angle in Dry Human Mandibles
The purpose of this study was to examine and analyze the position of the MF and linguala with Gonial angle in dry human mandibles. The position of mandibular foramen (MF) is an important anatomical landmark for effective anesthesia in dentistry for many procedures, including dental extraction from the lower jaw and putting mandibular implants. Several causes have been examined in this context, and the uncertainty in the location of the MF has been examined to be a major factor for the high failure rate of anesthesia and complications of the orthodontic procedure. The different parameters were measured in 100 dry adult's mandibles that were obtained from the Department of Anatomy. The data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. The mean distance between the MF and the respective landmarks was noted as 16.00 ± 3.50 mm for the anterior border, 10.21 ± 2.34 mm for the posterior border, 20.48 ± 3.89 mm for the superior border, 24.15 ± 4.97 mm for the inferior border, 33.46 ± 6.08 mm for the condyle, and 12.31 ± 4.88 mm for the internal oblique ridge for the right side. The precise localization of mandibular foramen is very important to achieve a successful inferior alveolar nerve block, prior to dental surgeries in the lower jaw like osteotomy, orthognathic reconstruction surgeries of the mandible and dental implant procedures, and also to avoid injury to the neurovascular contents passing through it.