Oral Manifestations of Pediatric Population with Congenital Anomalies
Congenital anomalies can be defined as structural or functional anomalies that occur during the intrauterine life and can be identified prenatally, at birth, or sometimes may not be detected later in infancy, such as hearing defects. In simple terms “congenital” refers to the existence at or before birth. According to WHO, the congenital anomalies may be the result of genetic, infectious, nutritional, or environmental factors. But it is often difficult to identify the exact cause of these abnormalities. Some of them can be prevented with vaccinations, vitamin intake and other antenatal care. However, congenital anomalies are an important cause of infant and childhood deaths, chronic illness, and disability. Most common congenital disorders affecting children with orofacial manifestations include, Zika virus congenital syndrome, Myelomeningocele, cleft lip and palate, Soft tissue lesions of oral cavity, Amelogenesis imperfecta, Dentinogenisis imperfecta, Hemangioma, Kabuki syndrome, Ellis Van-Creveld syndrome, Congenital heart defects etc. A comprehensive study and their manifestations are illustrated below.