Phytochemical Investigation and Pharmacological Activity of Petroleum Ether Fraction of Solidago canadensis L. against COVID-19 Activity
Author(s): Hayder T Hasan* and Enas J Kadhim
Coronavirus COVID-19 is a dangerous viral disease caused by a new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), medicinal plants have been used in the treatment of a large number of diseases since ancient times, Solidago canadensis L. belongs to the asteraceae family, which includes approximately one hundred species, widely distributed in North American wildflowers and greater than a dozen species inhabiting South America, Europe and Asia. It has been cultivated in Iraq in the provinces of Babylon and Diyala recently. 750 gm has been extracted with ethanol 85% then fractionated after drying with petroleum ether, then GC/MS analysis by Shimadzu GCMS-QP2020 show the detection of 60 compounds. The results showed the presence of a variety of compounds; fatty acids like palmitic acid and linoleic acid methyl ester. Terpenes and terpenoids like α-pinene, bornyl acetate, myrcene, verbenol, terpinolene, germacrene-D, andrographolide, caryophyllene oxide, as well as vitamin E.
High throughput Cytopathic Effect (CPE) inhibitory tests for the COVID-19 virus on vero cells were developed in investigating new potential antiviral agents. A crystal violet uptake assay was used to measure the cytotoxic and antiviral effects.
The identified compounds in the petroleum ether fraction showed high antiviral activities against COVID-19 with Selective Index (SI)=Estimated CC50/estimated IC50=2,283.9, consequently, the tested samples are good candidates for further experiments as anti-COVID-19.