Prevalence and Risk Factors of Oral Cavity Protozoa (Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax) among Patients with Dental Cavity Caries
Author(s): Hossein Mahmoudvand, Azadeh Sepahvand, Massumeh Niazi, Negar Momeninejad, Sara Mohammadi Sepahvand, Massumeh Behzadian*
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and comparison the prevalence of oral cavity protozoa (Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax) in patients with dental cavity caries referring to Khorramabad Dental faculty, Lorestan Province, Iran.
Methods: This case-control study was done on 140 patients referring to Khorramabad Dental faculty with at least one decayed tooth (from all classes of caries, especially class 2) who needed to be restored were included in the study. The collected samples (saliva, dental plaque, and rotten dentin cavities.) were smeared on a glass slide, then were stained with Giemsa stain and examined under a light microscope. A questionnaire containing demographic data such as age, gender and residence, as well as some risk factors such as smoking, use of toothbrush, and dental floss were completed.
Results: Out of the 140 patient, totally 39 (27.85%) patient were found positive for oral cavity parasites including 22 (15.4%) patients for E. gingivalis, 15 (10.7%) patients for T. tenax, and also 2 (1.4%) patients for both parasite. There was no significant association between prevalence of E. gingivalis and T. tenax and age, education, residence, and smoking; however a significant association was found between the prevalence these oral cavity parasites and gender (male) dental flossing and teeth brushing (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The obtained results of the present investigation showed the high prevalence of E. gingivalis and T. tenax in patients with dental cavity caries; which suggests that these parasites can contribute to the development of cavity caries in the teeth. However, attention to oral and dental health standards, especially brushing and regular flossing, can prevent people from getting these parasites.