Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Manifestations in Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: A Cross-Sectional Study
Introduction: Musculoskeletal complications are most seen in patients with a longstanding history of DM type 1.
Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestations associated with DM type 1 in Belagavi district.
Materials and Methods: Out of a total of 200 participants with Diabetes Mellitus type 1, 95 participants with musculoskeletal problems were assessed for range of motion, pain, and muscle strength of the most affected joint. They were also screened for any deformities in the upper and lower limbs as well as interviewed for any activity limitations in functional tasks. The objective outcomes used were chippaux index and weight distribution during gait.
Results: Our results showed that, musculoskeletal deformities were observed in 60% of the participants. 14.74% of the participants presented with restricted and pain-free ROM, 89.47% had pain and 98.95% showed generalized muscle weakness. The most common deformity seen in the upper limbs and lower limbs was salaam deformity and pes cavus respectively. According to chippaux index, 27.37% participants presented with tendency to cavus foot whereas 14.74% with tendency to flatness. Medial weight bearing of foot was observed in 17.89% participants, whereas lateral weight bearing was seen in 28.42% participants. Also, range of motion and deformity were found to be significantly associated p=0.012.
Conclusion: The study concluded that musculoskeletal manifestations occur with a greater frequency in patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 1 in Belagavi district and that, ROM and musculoskeletal deformities are significantly associated.