Prevalence of Prosthetic Stomatitis and Risk Factors in a Sample of Institutionalized Elderly
Author(s): LuÃs Azevedo, David Martins, MÃ¡rio Fonseca, Pedro Moreira, PatrÃcia Couto, NÃ©lio Veiga
Background: Prosthetic stomatitis is a medical term used to describe inflammatory changes in the response of the oral mucosa to prosthesis. This pathology is characterized by erythema and is located below the partial or total prosthesis, both in the maxilla and in the mandible. The main causes of this pathology may be related with poor oral hygiene, non-rest of the prosthesis and local or systemic immunodeficiencies. Objective: Determination of the prevalence of prosthetic stomatitis and causal factors in a sample of institutionalized elderly with removable prosthesis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed in which the participants are institutionalized elderly in different nursing homes of the city of Viseu, Portugal. Participants were institutionalized elderly in different nursing homes with removable prosthesis. A final sample of 36 elderly subjects was obtained. There is one group diagnosed with prosthetic stomatitis and one group that does not have this condition. Clinical examination was performed and a questionnaire was applied in order to study risk factors associated with prosthetic stomatitis. Results: It was verified that of the 36 elderly, 50% had prosthetic stomatitis and the remaining 50% did not present the pathology. Of these 36 elderly, 38.9% refer cleaning their prosthesis at least twice a day. Of the same sample of 36 elderly, only 38.9% would remove their prosthesis during night (while sleeping). Of the patients with prosthetic stomatitis, 33.3% refer cleaning their prosthesis at least twice a day and 11.1% would remove their prosthesis during night (while sleeping). Of the 18 patients without prosthetic stomatitis, 66.7% refer cleaning their prosthesis at least twice a day, and 66.7% would remove their prosthesis during night (while sleeping). Conclusions: To prevent the extension of these lesions, prosthesis wearers should be regularly called for a clinical examination of the oral cavity and prosthesis. Preventive measures should be taken against the colonization of Candida albicans in the palatal mucosa and the prosthesis, such as improvement of oral and prosthetic hygiene and prosthetic removable at night during sleep. Further studies and an increase of the sample of institutionalized elderly are needed to analyze other risk factors associated with the pathology.