Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Review on Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management
Author(s): Saad M Alqahtani*
Primary hyperparathyroidism is described as hypercalcemia due to excessive or inappropriate parathyroid hormone secretion caused by the over activity of one or more parathyroid glands. The sporadic type accounts for most primary hyperparathyroidism cases (90-95%), while familial hereditary accounts for only 5-10%. Most primary hyperparathyroidism patients are asymptomatic, and their disease is discovered through incidental hypercalcemia findings. On the other hand, some patients may have Normocalcemia, a condition known as "Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism." In contrast, others may have a normal parathyroid hormone level, indicating an inappropriate response to hypercalcemia. This review focuses on sporadic classic primary hyperparathyroidism, including epidemiology, pathophysiology, preoperative workup, and treatment.