Protein and Starch Content in the Collection of Barley Samples in the Conditions of the Northern Trans-Urals
The article presents the biochemical characteristics of the collection of chaffy barley samples of Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Federal Research Center the N. I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources", grown in the Northern forest-steppe of the Tyumen region in 2011-2013 on the experimental field of the Northern Trans-Urals State Agrarian University. The soil is leached chernozemic soil, low-power, heavy loam. Field experiments have been conducted in accordance with the "Guidelines for the study and preservation of the world's collection of barley and oats". 127 barley samples have been studied, and Acha variety of chaffy barley has been used as a standard. According to the protein content, the samples are classified into five groups. The largest number of samples (38%) belonged to the fourth group, where the protein content was 14.1-15.0%, 29% of samples corresponded to the third group (protein content 13.1-14.0%), and 22% – to the fifth group (protein content 15.1-17.0%). In the first group, where the protein content is 10.1-12.0%, and in the second group, where the protein content is 12.1-13.0%, the number of samples is significantly lower (4 and 7%, respectively). The highest average weight of 1000 grains were observed in barley samples of the fourth group (48.7 g), the fifth (48.6 g) and the first (48.3 g). The samples of the third group value of feature below – 46,3 g, in samples of the second group, where the protein content of 12.1 to 13.0%, the lowest share of 43.7 g. The starch content in the grain samples of barley tended to decrease from the groups with a low percentage of protein groups with middle and high content. The amount of starch in the samples of the first and second groups at the level of 61.6% and 60.7%, then there is a downward trend: from 60.1 to 58.6%. Taking the high value of the protein content in the barley grain for feed purposes into consideration, the table shows the samples with more than 15% protein in the grain. All of them (30 of them) significantly exceed the protein content of Acha barley variety approved for use in the region (an excess of 2.4-4.2%). It should be noted the peculiarity of many samples of this group – the ability to form a large and full-weight grain. Viking (K-30471) from Germany (58.2 g) and Luka (K-30899) from the Kemerovo region (58.1 g) were characterized by the highest 1000 grains weight. Such varieties as I. AHOR 2542/63 from Ethiopia (K-20024), Aria from Sweden (K-20508), Anadolu 86 (K-30319) and Obruk 86 (K-30320) from Turkey, L-5 Krinichniy (K-30439) from Belarus, Karabalyk 5 (K-30774) from the Chelyabinsk region, Pervotselinnik (K-30895) from the Orenburg region, Sokol (K-30827) and Zernogradsky (K-30453) from the Rostov region significantly exceeded the standard for this feature (by 4-7G) . Special attention should be paid to samples of the collection with a complex of high indicators and exceeding the standard for yield. This is a Pervotselinnik from the Orenburg region (K-30895): protein content of 16%, starch-59.1%, weight of 1000 grains-50.3 g, exceeding the standard yield of 10%; Luka from the Kemerovo region (K-30899): protein content of 16.2%, starch – 58.8%, weight of 1000 grains – 58.1 g, exceeding the standard yield of 21%. Thus, the classification of samples of the barley collection by the protein content in the grain allowed us to identify a number of features characteristic of certain groups, and to identify samples with a complex of valuable features.