Radiographic Evaluation of External Apical Root Resorption After Orthodontic Treatment: A Study of Contributing Factors
Author(s): Eman I Alshayea*, Hana O AlBalbeesi, Alanoud Almutairi, May Alshenaifi, Nora AlAgil, Sahar Bin Huraib
Background: The most common risk factors of orthodontic treatment is apical root resorption. It is hence the purpose of this study to examine the risk factors contributing to orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) by evaluating and comparing different conventional radiographic images. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of ????ft???four retrospective pre- and post- orthodontic treatment radiographs, including panoramic, lateral cephalometric, and periapical radiographs (PA). The age range of the subjects was between 13-30 years old with a mean age of 19 ± 4 years. The sample was distributed demographically into 36 females and 18 males with 14 extraction and 40 non-extraction cases. In addition, the sample was divided into three different groups based on their anteroposterior skeletal ??on????gur??t??ons (19 patients of Class I, 19 patients of Class II, and 16 patients of Class III). Root length and anteroposterior skeletal ??on????gur??t??ons were assessed by using digital software. Data were analysed by using Kurskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Age and gender were not of s??gn??????????n??e concerning OIEARR. On the other hand, skeletal ??????ss??????????t??on (p=0.02), treatment duration (p=0.00), and the presence of extractions (p=0.02) were of statistical s??gn??????????n??e? Maxillary central incisors were the most type of teeth effected by OIEARR when measured in the three different radiographs. In addition, a PA radiographs showed that the teeth in extraction cases are at increased risk of root resorption during orthodontic treatment than non-extraction cases with a mean value of 1.13 mm of root resorption. Conclusion: Risk factors contributing to OIEARR were found to be limited to the skeletal ??on????gur??t??on? duration of treatment, and the presence of extractions. Moreover, it is essential to note that some types of teeth are more prone to OIEARR, which are usually the maxillary central incisors. The diagnosis of root resorption can be highlighted from the Panoramic and cephalometric radiographs, the characteristics of which must be observed with a PA radiographs.