Recombination Analysis of S-Segment Genome of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Turkey
Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an illness that caused by a tick-borne virus, which belongs to family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. It is carried on migratory birds. CCHF disease has been appeared in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Then, the disease spread in other cities in Turkey such as Yozgat, Eskisehir, Kelkit, and Corum. RNA recombination is mixing of genetic material strains from different countries into new combinations that cause RNA virus diversity. The aim of this study is the recombination analysis of complete S-segment genome among CCHFV strains in Turkey and strains from different countries.
Materials and Methods: S-segment has the strongest geographical subdivision, and the investigation S-segment genome of CCHFV explained that there are differences in nucleotide sequences between strains. Turkey is a center for distribution of migratory birds. In this study, we compared strains whit complete sequence from Russia, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Greece, Iran, Nigeria, Mauritania, Sudan, South Africa, and Mali, where have migratory birds’ flyways. The GenBank information is downloaded from www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov in FASTA format and investigated with phylogenetic tree. Evidence of recombination is analyzed by using SimPlot and MEGA X software.
Results: The strains in Corum, Kelkit, Eskisehir, Yozgat are mainly recombinant of the strains in Iran, Russia, Bulgaria, and Nigeria in orderly.
Conclusion: This research revealed that African-Eurasian migratory bird flyways provide the way for intercontinental migration of the CCHFV that causes recombination of CCHFV in Turkey. Thus, the vaccine design should be updated as concerned of recombination of CCHFV.