Salivary Dopamine Among Primary School Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Relation to Caries Status
Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Evidence from brain imaging studies have shown that brain dopamine neurotransmission is disrupted among them that may had some effect on caries experience.
Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the association of dental caries status and salivary dopamine level among students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in comparison to control group.
Materials and Methods: Total sample composed of 500students selected from schools in Baghdad city/ Iraq. All were subjected to NICHQ-Vanderbilt-Assessment-Scales index for diagnosis of ADHD. The study group include students that were selected from type combined (attentive and deficit) ADHD to make comparisons between salivary dopamine level and dental health status. Official permission was obtained from the Iraqi Ministry of Education to examine the students without obligation and to ensure support from schools’ authority. Dental caries measured by following the criteria of WHO in 2013 by using dmfs, dmft index for primary teeth and DMFs and DMFT for permanent teeth
Result: From the total sample examined only (17.2%) were found with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from which 44 type combined were pooled from them according to specific formula and they have dmfs mean which is more than the control group, but the difference is not significant. The same result found concerning permanent teeth, but the difference was statically significant correlation coefficient of dental caries represented by dmfs to the level of salivary dopamine in primary dentition is go on positive direction for ADHD and control group, while for permanent teeth represented by DMFs to be in negative direction in the ADHD group and it is on positive direction in the control group for however the result is not significant in both groups.
Conclusion: in this study ADHD children appear to have more caries that seemed to be not associated with salivary dopamine.