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Testing for SARS-COV-2: Molecular and Serological Diagnosis | Abstract

Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science
eISSN No. 2347-2367 pISSN No. 2347-2545

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Testing for SARS-COV-2: Molecular and Serological Diagnosis

Author(s): Pranjali Jain*, Swarupa Chakole

Abstract

The coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemics and accompanying illness (COVID-19) have reached global proportions, putting
additional strain on healthcare systems to contain and manage COVID-19. To curb the spread of virus, improvements
in diagnosis is needed along with mass screening of a large proportion of population. Search for viral RNA in upper and
lower respiratory airways using RT-PCR methods are on-going which will be used to make a molecular diagnosis of
SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness. Serological testing for viral antibodies could aid healthcare personnel in
supporting COVID-19 diagnosis and follow-up, as well as population screening. First step is to collect the specimen as early
as patient come. Site of collection of swabs should be anatomically appropriate for accurate result of test. Main diagnostic
test is molecular test that is RTPCR in initial stage whereas supportive test is serological test. CoV-2 is made up of
single-strand ribonucleic acid (ssRNA) along with a positive sense strand which is enveloped. Patients with comorbid
diseases such as diabetes, cancer, hypertension, malnutrition, old age, children, and pregnancy have severe infection
and a high mortality rate. Most appropriate and frequently used test for diagnosing COVID-19 is RTPCR. It makes use
of TaqMan fluorogenic probe-based chemistry and Taq DNA polymerase's 5′-nuclease activity. Early discovery, diagnosis,
isolation, and treatment are the most efficient methods for prevention and control of COVID-19. Both clinical and
preclinical knowledge is important for fighting COVID-19 like pathology, microbiology and other detection techniques
required for molecular diagnosis and improving ability of early diagnosis.

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