Testing for SARS-COV-2: Molecular and Serological Diagnosis | 93285

Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science
eISSN No. 2347-2367 pISSN No. 2347-2545

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Testing for SARS-COV-2: Molecular and Serological Diagnosis

Author(s): Pranjali Jain* and Swarupa Chakole


The coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemics and accompanying illness (COVID-19) have reached global proportions, putting additional strain on healthcare systems to contain and manage COVID-19. To curb the spread of virus, improvements in diagnosis is needed along with mass screening of a large proportion of population. Search for viral RNA in upper and lower respiratory airways using RT-PCR methods are on-going which will be used to make a molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness. Serological testing for viral antibodies could aid healthcare personnel in supporting COVID-19 diagnosis and follow-up, as well as population screening. First step is to collect the specimen as early as patient come. Site of collection of swabs should be anatomically appropriate for accurate result of test. Main diagnostic test is molecular test that is RTPCR in initial stage whereas supportive test is serological test. CoV-2 is made up of single-strand ribonucleic acid (ssRNA) along with a positive sense strand which is enveloped. Patients with comorbid diseases such as diabetes, cancer, hypertension, malnutrition, old age, children, and pregnancy have severe infection and a high mortality rate. Most appropriate and frequently used test for diagnosing covid-19 is RTPCR. It makes use of TaqMan fluorogenic probe-based chemistry and Taq DNA polymerase's 5′-nuclease activity. Early discovery, diagnosis, isolation, and treatment are the most efficient methods for prevention and control of COVID-19. Both clinical and preclinical knowledge is important for fighting COVID-19 like pathology, microbiology and other detection techniques required for molecular diagnosis and improving ability of early diagnosis.

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