A Review on the Effect of COVID-19 Disease on Various Age Groups

Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science
eISSN No. 2347-2367 pISSN No. 2347-2545

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Review Article - (2023) Volume 11, Issue 1

A Review on the Effect of COVID-19 Disease on Various Age Groups

Sahil Gandhi and Sarika Dakhode*

*Correspondence: Sarika Dakhode, Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, India, Email:

Author info »


The outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which was first reported in seafood markets of Wuhan, China soon reached other continents and in no time involved 215 countries. The origin of the virus was considered zoonotic but later the spread from human to human was seen.

The mode of spread could be either via droplet infection or direct contact with the person who is infected by the virus. The virus in its initial few days itself caused a huge amount of morbidity and mortality, therefore for effective management of the limited resources available, it became essential to study the response and the severity of disease that was caused by the virus in various age groups.

The virus affected people of all age groups but the intensity and severity of the disease was found to be different in different age groups. While seniors were initially more afflicted, due to the older group's adoption of norms, the amount of aged folks who became infected decreased, resulting in a decrease in the disease's mortality. However, the younger generation persisted to venture outside for employment and other pursuits, resulting in rise in percentage of youth affected by the disease. The aging population has been the most severely hit by the disease and the shutdown measures and has benefited the least from internet efforts. The term "age related digital divides" refers to a disparity in the use of modern technologies. The COVID-19 breakout resulted in a large number of persons suffering from the bad effects of the problem. The use of a digital solution to assist the total society was unfeasible.


Vaccination, COVID-19, India, Mortality, Healthcare workers, Vaccination, Outbreak


The main focus of all the studies which were performed on the COVID-19 virus has always been the elderly since they were found to be the most prone amongst the masses. Also the risk of mortality increases with increasing age. Therefore for the treatment and prevention of the disease it became necessary to study the population which was most affected by the virus [1,2].

The symptoms of the virus can be diverse starting from being asymptomatic to severe respiratory distress. According to CDC, the common symptoms include hyperthermia, cold coughs and loss of tongue sensation but the infected person may also experience sore throat, redness of eyes, skin rash, aches and pains. Sometimes most extensive symptoms include uneasiness in chest and difficulty in breathing [3,4].

According to the study main group of the population affected by Coronavirus belong to elderly age group. The main reason which was attributing this was:

• All the comorbid conditions (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, cancer, heart diseases) which led to worsening of the disease were found to be affecting the elderly. Therefore severe disease is mainly seen in the elderly group of people.

• Younger children are more exposed to the allergens and common cold since they go to day care. These infections may have caused the memory in B and T cells of these children.

• Elderly have a more suppressed immune system when compared to a young person. Also the myocardium of the elderly may get affected easily causing deadly outcome.

• The thymus which is present in children provides a barrier to infections [5]. The study of disease transmission of COVID-19 in youngster’s preliminary data.

Effect of COVID-19 in children

According to study done by Chinese disease control center only 2% population below 20 years has been effected by this disease. Three series were taken off the contaminated kids the first series were having twenty youngster of Zhejiang the second series having 37 kids from Shenzhen and third series of 9 baby throughout different areas off Chinese. A large portion were taken from second series having respiratory manifestation in 65% cases and having loose bowels, cerebral pain and helpless taking care of bluish discoloration of skin, difficulty in breathing in extreme cases. The third series gave fever in four babies. Practically every one of the kids with showed side effects recuperated inside a long time. No demise is accounted for in kids tainted with COVID-19 till now.

Fatality rate among children

S. no Country name Number of cases Age distribution % ages 0-10/10-18 Case fatality Web link
1 Global cases till 16 March 153,5235735 (deaths) Ages 1–10 0% NA
Ages 10–20 1.2%
2 China 81,048 Ages 0–10 0.2% NA
Ages 10–19 1.2%
3 Italy 21,157 1.20% NA
4 South Korea 7979 Below age 10 0.9% NA
Ages 10–19 5.2%

Table 1: Shows age distribution and case fatality during COVID-19.

Pondering the investigation of illness transmission of the beyond two scenes, it was recognized that, regardless of the way that adolescents are frail to tainting by COVID-19, more energetic child somewhat show mild disorder when appeared differently in relation to the 12 years and teens. It shows that age group 12-19 was taken after the clinically revelations as young and also decrease in their condition as well as uncovered in some study MERS infection dominate in adults but some of cases in peads social affair was in like manner declared, regardless of the way that as though there ought to be an event of SARS and Coronavirus, majority of them was without symptoms. Conclusion was generally done at time of screening communication of the adult member who was suffering from MARS infection.

Disregard the way that without much cases youths with Coronavirus, but probably was the carriers of contamination. It is demonstrated that child was delicate to SARS-CoV-2 infection, yet amazingly without perceptible disorder, providing that child could go probably as go between transmission of virus and upgrade. Therefore, public and social prosperity plans, for instance, making an effort not to contact with old get together would be picked to avoid move gatekeeper powerless people. There are "peaceful patients" which may stay unseen and can induce the contamination to critical get together of people. It has all the earmarks of being that adolescents may not be as unprotected to Corona.

Effect of COVID-19 in young adult

Report shows child that cultivate lesser incidental effects appeared differently in respect to middle aged which constantly in discharge up of Coronavirus. Likewise the audit sign that delicate appearances/nonappearance WRT outrageous signs in youths might provoke incorrect diagnosis and can incite skirt the essential lab of Coronavirus reports and thusly, children without much symptomatology can spare the illness. An audit test negative. A child with infected COVID-19 virus can show negative throat and nose swab. Nevertheless, the most outrageous number of infection child found the piece of home bunch scene manner according to the past eruptions of SARS and MERS, which offered an explanation to have 50-80% and 32% of adolescents, tainted by family contact, independently.

Young people have identical conceivable outcomes of becoming polluted with SARS-CoV-2 as adults, regardless of the way that would have milder appearances or absolutely asymptomatic as suggested by an actually appropriated audit in walk 2020. But, the occupation of children in spreading the disease is still to be loosened up. In like manner, till date, there is no verification of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, from mother to the infant kid [6].

Effect of COVID-19 in older population

Regardless of the way that it is at this point vague the extreme effects of this diseases, unfriendly outcome at mental flourishing has subsided being unmistakable. Early examinations have adequately itemized an augmentation in apprehension and horror in everyone, especially those standing up to widened lockdowns [6,7]. These effects are enhanced in the more established people because of an extraordinary degree of strict lockdown, greater risk if disorder and lack of public assistance [8]. Earlier assessments was moreover declared that during disease time, more established people were commonly higher speeds of difficult aftereffects, which is disturbing notwithstanding evidence that those encountering earlier enthusiastic body situation might be largely influenced by adverse mental after effects of strictness [9-11]. While extended enthusiastic prosperity troubles in everyone may be cause for concern at this time, these worries extend beyond mental success in the old. As per the reports cognitive impairment in the older is associated in reduction in academic performance and an increased chance of Alzheimer’s disease [12,13]. This implies that, while diverse social orders currently confront the short risk of exacerbating mental health issues, the long term consequences could be disastrous, as despair and stress affect the more prepared age, resulting in accelerated academic decline and increased Alzheimer’s disease rates. This issue will most likely be further exacerbated by the legitimate demands placed on people's development outside of their homes, resulting in fewer exercise opportunities for some people. A couple of examinations have shown that action, even in light to coordinate partitions and powers, can have a basic valuable result on mental ability in the more established, especially in those with scholarly preventions or neuropsychiatric issues. Looking at this prior assessment, loss of socialization, extended mental strain and general mental prosperity issues and decreased exercise could have huge antagonistic outcomes on the more seasoned people. Though the lockdowns may be transient, these effects are presumably going to be suffering and could introduce basic threats to the individual fulfillment of the old people sooner rather than later [14-18].

In any case, the movements that have arisen in various countries since the onset of the Coronavirus pandemic are linked to a loss of socializing and a long period of grief. Lockdowns have resulted in a massive shift in the way it's done in daily life: The world has progressed. Induction to normal clinical benefits for non-Coronavirus related illnesses has been encroached upon as facilities have now become overloaded with Coronavirus patients [19]. Those who do not seek treatment for non-Coronavirus related illnesses may be at higher risk of illness and loss during this period. This danger will adversely impact the aged, who have a higher rate of clinical problems than young folks and will surely be requested to avoid areas in which they may contract the disease. When it comes to this topic, there has been a major shift in clinical thinking in the modern world. Telehealth or the practice of cautiously and effectively disseminating clinical advantages, has become commonplace in a number of countries. In any case, in the more seasoned than varied masses, this move has had less successful effects. According to a study, over 40% of more experienced people were unprepared to use telehealth resources, owing to a lack of needed to better use the equipment. This was also demonstrated during the outbreak, as the category with the most substantial gathering of telemedicine consumers was those aged 20-44, regardless of the fact that the elderly in generally experience the maximum number of skilled professional and clinical facility visits each and every year. Despite the fact that there have been some new attempts to create an interactive geriatric clinic to aid the elderly during the pandemic, research has revealed that these have had varying success and have been met with a range of issues related to development use difficulties. As a nutshell, despite having the social event that necessitated the most telehealth treatments, the neighborhood profited the least from their execution [20].

This shift into the automated space connects past the clinical consideration region. Online permission to Coronavirus related news, guidance, staple transport organizations, pack. Through use of indoctrination and a higher number of participants has become common place. The world has really become use to striving to compensate for the lack of access to conventional resources, and this has been quite compelling in different locations and for certain people. Regardless, the previous generation is one cultural unit that suffers the most from these high level decisions, as they have slower net access and less affirmation than other age groups. As a result, there is a focus on secret: The people who are most negatively influenced by the Coronavirus pandemic are also the people who are least guilty of having access of resources made to minimize the effect and it is attributed to the lower progressed capability capacities seen in the old people stood out from more energetic get together, most typically portrayed as the modernized parcel.


Old age and past afflictions

The Coronavirus sickness by him affected more settled adults more sincerely as compared to rest social occasions.

More settled adults are bound to at this point have stowed away conditions like cardiovascular infection, sugar and breathing problems ill health and illness that we at present increase the chances of outrageous Coronavirus and Coronavirus associated passing. In like manner, a plausible more weak safe structure finds it more difficult for prepared adult to avoid this condition [21].

Accordingly, the impact on more prepared adults is exceptional. As demonstrated by world well-being association more than 2/3 Coronavirus passing were among 60 plus age and most of the death occurred in people above 75 years.

In Sweden 80% of death with COVID-19 was seen in 75 year of age group. The habitats for infectious avoidance and anticipation offered data in spring showing a typical Coronavirus case loss speed of 3% adult at 60.8% from 70's, 14% from 80's or more.

"More prepared adults peoples to a generally extended danger genuine sickness after Coronavirus infection," said Dr. Hans Henri, WHO local chief, stated "That's everybody's obligation to assist and better equip people who live alone in their communities."

In persons of later age, the impact of Coronavirus and concern

While the affluence and accomplishment of much more established individuals may interest the larger neighborhood, there are important foci to the present situation and care homes, as well as nearby medical systems, are one such location.

The Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) in the United States warns trusted source that "certified nursing masses are at the highest risk of being impacted by Coronavirus," increasing the risk for further equipped persons while also putting care staff in danger.

The NYT (NYT) obtained statistics and information revealing that around 28,100 adults in the United States have recovered out of a severe acute respiratory illness in a care facility or other long term care facility for stronger patients, as well as getting better prepared people living alone locally.

Well over a third of all Coronavirus transmissions in the United States or 35% occur in protracted care workplaces, harming including inhabitants and workers.

"While brief consideration workplaces provide just for 11 percent of the country's infections," the authors of the NYT study note, passing connected to Coronavirus in these workplaces accounted for a stunning 33 percent of the disease morbidity. The case appears to be frenetic in several areas of the globe. As per evidence gathered by school of London economics in assembled realm, a massive proportion of Coronavirus related victims died in hospitals.

In Belgium, care homes accounted responsible for 53% of all Coronavirus transmissions.

The risk of COVID-19 spread into aged personnel in the swell being and effects personal in the same actions that affect tenants is heightened by the fact that the vast majority of instances reported by doctors in all these situations were without symptoms. 70 percent of those suspected of having Coronavirus exhibited no symptoms by that time, as did 74 percent of those who had met criteria for the newer COVID-19.

Despite these alarming findings, United States central government is not scrutinizing the material. Taking lots of progress details about who the pandemic is wreaking havoc on is hindering planning the facilities which they needed utmost [22].

"It is hard to deal with and combat the sickness providing not even know in where it is present" David Grobawski, medical assessment methodology lecturer at Cambridge hospital school, told reporters.

Professor Grabowski went on to say that keeping in mind the info provided could accurately detect whether the pandemic will occur; additional non-profit supporters believe that knowing which care have the most cases can assist states in allocating funds where they are most needed [23].

As the Coronavirus epidemic has developed, the unexpected ancillary affect begin to affect the globe about them. The globe’s normal participation with millions and millions of people is disrupted by shutdowns, the globe has anticipated adapting. Those hospitals had biggest majority of positive reports can help states with planning strategy [24].

The transition to something like a focus on cutting edge electronics has been successful in limiting a large number of the concerns seen during the epidemic and many people have managed to communicate, learn, work and get clinical care using digital equipment [25]. Regardless, the more founded persons and those who've faced a big variation in entrance to and capability to use technology, are not thought to have comparable advantages to other more active social affairs. The ancient citizenry has been hit by a portion of the pandemic's greatest evidentially horrifying impacts, with harsher shutdown controls and increased risks of mental and physical maladies and the greater section has recognized that the repercussions of these actions will not be limited [26-30]. There is indeed a strong case for action, especially short term and long term, to limit the unfavorable effects of the top level divide throughout that crisis and to work to finally bridge the gap [31-35]


Even though the COVID-19 disease outbreak has already progressed, unanticipated negative consequences have emerged. As millions of today's society is disrupted by world incarceration, the world does have to adapt. Many issues faced and experienced in the outbreak were alleviated as a result of this decision to online media and several individuals have remained to socialize, teach, perform and got medical care by forms of electronic communication. The aged, on either hand, whom had long faced major gaps to or ability on using information, really haven't received the same benefits as other youngsters. Elders were particularly severely struck by that of the pandemic most severe implications, like tighter confinement tactics and increased risks of anxiety and depression and the generation gap means that all such attempts will also not be reduced. This appears to be a clear necessity current and long term measures to minimize those negative effects of the inequity all across the catastrophe, but to also take steps that shrink the disparity inside the near term. Official effort to expand Wi-Fi connection and existing curriculums for elders is vital, specifically as the globe undergoes a far more radical transition. Although order to meet demand might not have been ready to fully safeguard the elderly from of the pandemic's negative effects, they can help to reduce difficulties and ensure that this subject receives the funding and attention it requires inside this foreseeable to begin narrowing the grownup performance gap.


Author Info

Sahil Gandhi and Sarika Dakhode*

Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Received: 02-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JRMDS-22-77326; , Pre QC No. JRMDS-22-77326; Editor assigned: 04-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. JRMDS-22-77326; Reviewed: 18-Nov-2022, QC No. JRMDS-22-77326; Revised: 03-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. JRMDS-22-77326; Published: 10-Jan-2023