Antifungal Activity of Ficus racemosa Ethanolic Extract against Dermatophytes-An in vitro Study
Ficus Racemosa also known as Ficus glomerata which is widely used medicinal plant with anti-bacterial antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer activities. Ficus Racemosa belongs to Moraceae family which is prevalently seen in warmer regions of Asia, America, Malaysia, Indonesia, Burma, and Australia. Most prominently distributed in India. Various parts of the plant like leaves, bark, root, fruit possess therapeutic value. The decoction of the leaves are used to treat dysmenorrhea, Latex of the leaves is used to treat blisters in measles. Fruit is an astringent used to treat constipation, sed as carminative agent .Bark is used to treat dysentery, diabetes, burns and swelling. Roots are used to treat gonorrhea; heat stroke .The objective of the study is to evaluate in-vitro antifungal activity of Ficus racemosa against three human pathogenic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The herbal extract was tested against various concentrations adopting agar well diffusion method. The results indicated that the extract was ineffective and did not show antifungal activity.
Ficus racemosa, Anti-fungal, Dermatophytes, Zone of inhibition
Skin, nail infections are seen most commonly in India. Dermatophytosis is one of the most frequent skin diseases of mankind. The disease is widely distributed all over the world and more common in men than in women. There are three genera of mould that cause dermatophytosis. These are Epidermophyton, Trichophyton and Microsporum [1,2].
Ficus racemosa is a moderate sized tree found in various parts of India. It is popular in indigenious system of medicine like ayurveda, siddha, unani and homoeopathy .
All parts of this plant (leaves, fruits, bark, latex, and sap of the root) possess medicinal value. The powdered leaves are mixed with honey is given in bilious infections. Fruits are a good remedy for visceral obstruction and also useful in regulating diarrhea and constipation.
The astringent nature of the bark has been employed as a mouthwash in spongy gum and also internally in dysentery, menorrhagia and haemoptysis . The bark possesses antiseptic, antipyretic and vermicidal properties. The decoction of bark is used in the treatment of various skin diseases, ulcers and diabetes.
It is also used as a poultice in inflammatory swellings/boils and regarded to be effective in the treatment of piles, dysentery, asthma, gonorrhea, gleet, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, hemoptysis and urinary diseases .
Literature studies indicate F. racemosa exhibits various pharmacological effects such as hepatoprotective, chemopreventive, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antitussive and antidiuretic [6-8].
Traditional medicine have been employed in the management of fungal infections rather than conventional preparations like terbinafine, some of the natural plants includes garlic, lemon grass, datura, acacia, a triplex, ginger, black seed, neem, basil, eucalyptus, alfalfa and basil [9-13].
Keeping this in view, the present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of ficus racemosa against Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum.
Materials and Methods
Ficus Racemosa extract is obtained as a gift sample from Green Chem herbal extracts & formulations, Bengaluru, India.
Three fungal pathogen used were procured from Institute of Microbial Type Culture Collection, Chandigarh (IMTECH) viz., Microsporum gypseum MTCC No. 2819, Trichophyton rubrum MTCC No.296 and Epidermophyton floccosum MTCC No.613 , and are maintained in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar.
Agar well diffusion method
On sterile plates containing sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar, the fungal cultures were swabbed. Wells of 6 mm diameter were bored in each plate. The wells were filled with varying concentrations of the sample. The plates were incubated at 28° C for 72 h for evaluation. The diameter of inhibition zones formed around the wells was measured in millimeters. The study was performed in duplicates for all the samples .
Result and Discussion
Dermatophytes are one of the common microbes which causes superficial mycosis and the lesions are characterized by circular disposition, desquamation, alopecia and erythema of the edges .
The prevalence of dermatophytes varies according to geographical location, exposure to human, living conditions etc., M. gypseum; a mycelial keratinophilic fungus is a geophilic dermatophyte. Humidity, pH and fecal contamination constitute relevant factors in the determination of its presence and of other keratinophilic fungi in the soil. M. gypseum possesses the capacity to infect animal and human tissue using keratin as its principal substrate [18-20]. Various literature studies reveal that this may be the cause of infections in different domestic and wild animal species. [21,22].
The study shows that there is no significant antifungal activity while testing against three dermatophytes in which the Microsporum gypseum is most commonly affecting humans and animals (Table 1).
|1||Microsporum gypseum||No activity||No activity||No activity|
|2||Epidermophyton floccosum||No activity||No activity||No activity|
|3||Trichophyton rubrum||No activity||No activity||No activity|
Table 1: Antifungal activity of ficus racemosa against dermatophytes.
Dermatophytosis is refractory to treatment, and the spectrum of antifungals for treating dermatophytosis is narrow. However, we suggest that ficus racemosa extract do not exhibit pharmacological effects and could not be employed in management of cutaneous infections.
The authors wish to thank the management of Saveetha Dental College & Hospitals for their kind support.
Conflict of Interest
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Citation: Lakshmi T, Antifungal Activity of Ficus Racemosa Ethanolic Extract against Dermatophytes-An in vitro study, J Res Med Dent Sci, 2021, 9 (2): 191-193.
Received: 14-Nov-2020 Accepted: 05-Feb-2021