G6PD Insufficiency, Redox Equilibrium, and Viral Infections: Insinuations for SARS-CoV-2

Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science
eISSN No. 2347-2367 pISSN No. 2347-2545

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Review Article - (2022) Volume 10, Issue 8

G6PD Insufficiency, Redox Equilibrium, and Viral Infections: Insinuations for SARS-CoV-2

Abhishek Dhawan* and Swarupa Chakole

*Correspondence: Abhishek Dhawan, Department of Community Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India, Email:

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The COVID-19 epidemic has inflicted damage on more than 4 crore 50 lakh people worldwide, resulting in over 10 lakh deaths. Infestation with the pathogenic SARS-CoV-2 virus leads to excessive inflammation and a cytokine storm, which leads to cell rupture due to a redox imbalance. The severe type of pneumonia caused by the human coronavirus (hCoV)-SARS-CoV-2 has caused heavy casualties, especially among the old age and those with comorbid illnesses all-inclusive of their age. The high mortality in African-American males, in general, raises the concern for a possible X-linked modulated process that could affect the viral pathogenesis and the immune system. When exposed to oxidants or infection, patients who lack the enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) may have a haemolysis phenomenon. People with a G6PD deficiency are more prone to take up a virus than people with normal G6PD. G6PD deficiency causes a distinct immunological reaction to viral infections in people. G6PD insufficiency appears to be a predisposing factor for COVID-19 infection. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (G6PD) is known to suppress the antioxidant system and is likely to aggravate severity of COVID-19 infection, which results in a pro-oxidant response leading to higher morbidity and mortality.


Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase, NADPH, Redox, Virus, SARS-COV2


The causative agent of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, has piqued global interest. As of November 2020, COVID-19 had broken over 4 crore 50 lakh people worldwide and killed over 10 lakh human beings [1]. The RNA virus SARS-CoV-2 comes under the Corona viridae own family's Beta coronavirus genus. The majority of human beings (80%) get over the contamination without having to be admitted to the medical institution. around 20% of people have extreme presentations and require oxygen remedy, while 5% require essential support. High temperature, pneumonia, serum SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in the blood (RNAemia), and ground-glass opacities inside lung parenchyma are all symptoms of COVID-19. COVID-19 patients might also revel in cold-like symptoms; however 15% of them will broaden critical troubles. Sepsis, thromboembolism, and multiple organ failure, together with damage to the lung, heart, liver, brain, and kidney, are most of the consequences resulting in mortality [2-4]. In people with severe COVID-19, breathing difficulty is often observed by means of a systemic inflammatory response, which corresponds to increased cytokine secretions [5-7].

Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is produced by dysregulated hyper inflammation due to viral contamination, and it presents as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Oxidative strain and a redox imbalance are closely related to those pathogenic networks [8]. But, how Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD), an oxygen inhibitor in addition to a pro-oxidant enzyme, affects COVID-19 is stills an unsolved mystery. G6PD deficiency is not an unusual X-linked enzymopathy that affects approximately 40 crore patients globally. G6PD mutations are more common in females, even though 90% of them with the genetic anomaly are affected. Those individuals develop a cataclysm of haemolysis simultaneously getting exposed to oxidants or microbes together with coronaviruses [9-11]. G6PD insufficiency affected people in Africa, the Mediterranean region, nearly the whole of South Asia and South America.

G6PD insufficiency is further seen in certain European countries, along with Italy and Spain, and those Mediterranean nations were badly struck by the COVID-19 pandemic and have high mortality rates [12,13]. This implies that "G6PD deficiency" is probably a hazard aspect for extensive COVID-19 sickness [14]. This paper aims to have an opinion on the viable bridge connecting G6PD deficiency and infections caused by virus, especially COVID-19, originating from the perspective of redox equanimity. Opportunistic COVID-19 cures are also being explored which are inclusive of antioxidants and anti-ageing medications etc.

Literature Review

In redox biology, G6PD serves as both an Oxygen Inhibitor and an enzyme inducing oxidative stress

G6PD deficiency is especially common in a few global places, in coexistence with Italy and Spain, which have been heavily hit by COVID-19 pandemic and have immoderate demise expenses [12,13]. This suggests that "G6PD deficiency" is probably a threat for COVID-19 contamination [14]. From the angle of redox homeostasis, the aim of this text is to analyse the likely connection among G6PD and viral infections, appreciably COVID-19. Opportunistic COVID-19 treatments, in concurrence with antioxidants and anti-ageing capsules, are also being traversed. NADPH additionally performs a feature in cytoregulation mediated by using redox signalling, such as the production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (ROS and RNS), respectively, through NADPH Oxidase (NOX) and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) [17]. The presence of G6PD is crucial in regulating the amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Contrastingly; G6PD keeps redox equilibrium with the resource of regulating cytotoxic ROS stages, which are cytotoxic at high levels. As an example, a 120–150 mm hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces temporary growth arrest, however repeated treatments or a 2-fold rising push in H2O2 interest (250-450 mm) leads the cells to forever experience increased apprehension or attain a senescent state. Apoptosis takes position on furthermore doses of H2O2 (0.5-1 mm). Even as cells are exposed to even more portions of H2O2 (5-10 mm), necrosis takes command [18]. Low amounts of ROS, can inspire a wide variety of biological responses, consisting of mutagenic mobile proliferation even as 3-15 mm H2O2 is present [19]. ROS at sub-micromolar concentrations are regularly used as message bearers to manipulate cellular methods [20,21].

Objective presentation of G6PD insufficiency from topical drug/infection-caused haemolysis to present day cell chamber effects

Total alchemical variations of the G6PD enzyme are 400 in number. They are divided into primarily 5 types (I, II, III, IV, and V) based on enzymatic action on RBC’s and scientific demonstration [22]. Within the erythrocytes of people with class I variations, there may be a great deal much less than 10% of the regular G6PD interest. It's a long way linked to persistent Non Spherocytic Haemolytic Anaemia (CNSHA). In high-quality sufferers, repeated attacks of intense haemolysis might also moreover want transfusion [23].

Elegance II variations are commonplace in Mediterranean and Asian international locations. Humans with elegance II variations have erythrocytes with much less than 10% of everyday G6PD interest, corresponding to people with elegance I versions. Class II variants aren't related to CNSHA. Acute haemolysis is general in this population due to illness, similarly to exposure to nice ingredients (fava bean), chemical materials (naphthalene balls), also medicines (antimalarial and antibiotics treatments) [24]. In such immoderate G6PD changes, widespread intravascular haemolysis might bring about sudden kidney dysfunction and sudden tubular cell death [25]. Magnificence III versions are seen in Mediterranean and Asian nations.

These somewhat impaired humans have 10-60% of everyday G6PD interest in their RBC’s. In sufferers with Magnificence III variations, infection and oxidant exposure motive intermittent haemolysis. People with beauty IV variants have erythrocytes that have more than 60% of regular G6PD interest and revel in much less scientific signs and symptoms. Humans with elegance V mutations have more G6PD interest in their erythrocytes than normal humans [26]. The majority of those sufferers are asymptomatic and unaware that they've the contamination. Human purple blood cells have traditionally been the focal point of G6PD research. G6PD regulates cellular proliferation, cellular demise, autophagy, irritation, and cancer in nucleated cells. G6PD insufficiency decreases reduplication capability in fibroblasts, in particular in early maturation [27]. The maximum in all likelihood motive of early senescence is prolonged oxidative stress instead of telomere shortening. Pharmacological inhibitors or RNAi knockdown in opposition to G6PD have indicated that decreased G6PD activity is related to improved retardation in a diffusion of cellular strains [28]. The maximum not unusual type of cell dying produced through G6PD pastime inhibition is apoptosis.

At 50 mm, the NO donor Sodium Nitro Prusside (SNP) restores proliferation in Homo sapiens foreskin fibroblasts; however it causes mortality in G6PD-poor foreskin cell chambers [29]. GSH is depleted with the aid of diamide, an oxidant. Blunted GSH regeneration, membranous peroxidation, and ordinary assemblage of membrane-modulated cytoskeletal protein molecules were discovered in diamide-prompted G6PD-knockdown Hep G2 cells. In G6PD-knockdown HepG2 cells, diamide-prompted oxidative harm can purpose cell death, at the same time as the antioxidant N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) can assist lessens necrosis and oxidative tensity [30]. HepG2 cells missing G6PD are also extra touchy to hydrogen peroxide-brought on increase inhibition and mortality, that is reversed via NAC [31]

Immune response manipulations have each been associated with G6PD-mediated redox homeostasis. G6PD deficiency has been linked with an issue of sepsis in neonates [32-34]. In new-borns and trauma sufferers, G6PD loss consequences in changed cytokine profiles [35-37]. In C6H12O6 overcharge-introduced on blood vessel related infection in human aortic muscle cell chambers, IL-1b complements glucose shipping and metabolism through the PPP, ensuing in an improved pro-anti-inflammatory reaction, collectively with NF-JB and NOX vitalization, with INOS protein synthesis [38]. While G6PD inhibits use of pharmacologic inhibitor 6-aminonicotinamide, 6-AN, or siRNA in competition to G6PD, the previous reaction is stopped. G6PD insufficiency can increase infection via the manner of causing NF-JB-mediated seasoned-anti-inflammatory chemokines overexpression. In an outside present HepG2 mobile version of lipid-brought about persistent liver inflammation, G6PD depletion will boom a pro-cytokine reaction with ROS synthesis [39]. The seasoned-cytokine IL-8 is reduced in HepG2 cells after treatment with glutathione peroxidase, an antioxidant enzyme, or curcumin, a remedy.

According to these findings, G6PD controls the pro-anti-inflammatory reaction brought about by mobile dependent way. G6PD is concerned in regulating the anti-inflammatory response in a diffusion of immune cells. G6PD-deficient people' peripheral mononuclear cells produce decreased tiers of the pro-anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1b than everyday human beings [40]. G6PD-insufficient granulocytes have shorter breathing bursts, making them much less bactericidal and extra at risk of infection [41,42]. In macrophages, unfastened fatty acids and Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) improve G6PD gene and protein expression [43].

Extensive overexpression of macrophage G6PD DNA in obese mice's fat tissue is linked to elevated tiers of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1b, and genes like NOXs and INOS are additionally upregulated when G6PD DNA and protein synthesis is expanded volume wise. The escalated pro-anti-inflammatory cytokines and/or seasoned-oxidative DNA are extensive below expression when the NF-JB and MAPK alleyways are blocked, in addition to whilst macrophage G6PD is reduced with the aid of pharmacological inhibitors siRNA or (6-AN, DHEA) [43].

From Ascorbic Acid to G6PD in relation to viral infestations (coronavirus, dengue virus, coronavirus, and enterovirus)

Internal defence gadget responds immediately after contamination to fend off invading microorganisms from proliferating and migrating from the host. Immunological responses and redox balance are inextricably linked. RSV, INFLUENZA or HIV can all be localized in the redox region [44-46]. With redox law, an antioxidant solution may be effective in stopping viral infections [47-50], at the same time inadequate antioxidant capability promotes viral activity and its duration [51,52]. Glutathione, as an instance, can inhibit dengue and chikungunya viruses in the bloodstream [53,54]. Presentations such as fever with inflammation caused by SARS-COV2 infestation is reduced by Glutathione for instance [55,56]. Selenium deficiency, in turn, has been linked to rapid enterovirus viral activity and development of cardiovascular lesions in mice [57,58]. Decreased Glutathione is associated with HIV development and poor durability of an HIV-positive person [59].

Ascorbic Acid, an inactivated scavenger also an herbal antioxidant, has long been regarded as an antibacterial agent [60]. Vitamin C's ability to donate electrons allows it to market important cellular functions and immunological responses [61-64]. Ascorbic Acid protects the pores and skin from oxidative stress and minor ailments by maintaining integrity and facilitating wound healing [65,66]. In neutrophils, Ascorbic Acid is essential for 3 things as phagocytosis, chemotaxis and finally microbial removal [67,68]. Is essentially required for caspase mediated cell death, specification of used PMNLs, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular entice [69,70]. Immune system dysfunction and exposure to pollution are the result of nutrient loss C.

Due to the ineffectiveness of L-gluconalactone oxidase, people are unable to combine the Vitamin C. Vitamin C remedy has been shown to be an effective alternative to respiratory problems, including acute breathing syndrome (SARS) [73]. The glucose transport involves the matured and ripened structure of vitamin C, dehydroascorbic acid, to absorb it [74]. As a result, hyperglycaemia can reduce dietary bioavailability of C. If COVID-19 infected people suffering from Diabetes too have less vitamin C reserves and are not taken care of with vitamin C injections, this might shed light on why this disease is so severe in those patients. Inclusion of excessive dose of vitamin C as an intervention of COVID-19 patients has been recommended in many clinical trials [75].

Calicivirus, HCV, rubella, norovirus, and rabies virus are all at risk of oxidative tensity caused by the use of H2O2 [76]. Coronavirus might be activated using H2O2 (0.5%) in a matter of minutes [77]. Herbal remedies containing H2O2, including nasal or mouthwash, can adorn congenital infections and protect the respiratory tract from new infections.

Nitric oxide is a free radical controlling the immunological defence system in addition to protecting the blood vessels. Lung damage in COVID-19 can be reduced with NO-triggered vasodilation [78]. Decreased or impaired NO metabolism related to the severity of COVID-19 contamination. High blood pressure COVID-19 caused by COVID-19 and death can be altered NO odor or type of nitrate-rich food [79,80].

The interest of the G6PD is undoubtedly connected beyond generation. Lack of G6PD inhibits NO period produced in the form of LPS and 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA) in human granulocytes [42]. In the cells of the pancreatic islet, IL-1b promotes NOS presentation and phase absorption, also G6PD expression [81]. The IL-1b-inspired NO period is reduced while the G6PD is inhibited with DHEA or siRNA. In endothelial cells, NO bioavailability and G6PD levels are negatively concomitant with ROS [82]. Inside poor endothelial chambers in the G6PD, there is a very low NOS (ENOS) presentation of endothelial and decreased levels of NO and GSH, while L-cysteine, a predecessor of GSH, lowers oxidative tensity [83].

Toxic Neurons are peroxynitrite, formed by NO. In PC12 cells, it will increase G6PD expression and induce apoptosis. Excessive G6PD stress can save NO-mediated apoptotic neuronal death, whereas G6PD stress exacerbates apoptosis [84]. G6PD is thought to be a factor in viral infestation [9-11,85]. G6PD deficiency enhances pathological changes in cells in addition to viral reduplication. Viruses including coronavirus, dengue virus, and enterovirus are at risk for G6PD deficient cells [9,85,86]. In G6PD-Insufficient lung fibroblast cells in association with epithelial chambers, HSCARG, NADPH sensor, and poor NF-JB regulator are highly modulated after human coronavirus 229E or human enterovirus 71 infection. Exposure to downstream genes such as TNF-a and MX1 [10]. HSCARG regulation reduces viral genetic material presentation; however HSCARG overexpression loads up viral reduplication, suggesting that the antiviral response arbitrated by the HSCARG method and NF-JB method is determined by the help of G6PD. Decreased presentation of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and elevated Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which modulates inflammation inducing responses with antibodies, is associated with G6PD deficiency [11]. Decreased MAPK phosphorylation and NF-JB levels due to TNF-alpha pushed to inhibit COX-2 inside G6PD-poor epithelial lung cells are associated with increased risk of coronavirus infection. The presentation of MAPK and COX-2 activation initiated by TNF-alpha in cells lacking G6PD might get suppressed by NOX siRNA or NOX inhibitor Diphenylene Iodonium (DPI), implicating that NOX signalling is disturbed by G6PD [17]. Those results are suggestive as a certainty that G6PD is required now for NOX activating response in response to TNF-induction if you want to modify an antiviral reaction.

Affected NET synthesis and inflame some exhilaration in G6PD-insufficiency and probable reaction on viral infestations

Polymorph Nuclear Leucocytes are essential additives in immune gadget. Despite the fact that neutrophils are known for their feature in bacterial and fungal contamination, their impact on the antiviral reaction has yet to be determined [87]. Stimulated neutrophils release chromosomal DNA in response to contamination, which traps and kills invading bacteria. The neutrophil extracellular entice is the call given to the chromatin trap It helps virus manage, as proven in HIV and chikungunya infestations [88,89]. However it could also make contributions to different viral infections, as visible in subhuman primates inflamed with HIV and Hep-2 chambers inflamed accompanied by breathing syncytial virus [90,91]. NETs had been associated with a ramification of pulmonary illnesses, along with critical lung harm, asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis, and pneumonia, due to their cytotoxic impact on lung epithelium and endothelium [92].

NAC and DPI can prevent net formation, indicating that oxidative strain and NOX are involved. The net synthesis produced via amyloid fibrils and PMA requires a metabolic turn around towards the PPP [93]. NOX, which produces superoxide and promotes internet formation, can use G6PD-acquired NADPH as a substrate substance [17]. Neutrophils of human beings with the G6PD Taiwan-Hakka version are green as everyday neutrophils in forming NETs [94]. But, neutrophils from human beings with intense G6PD deficiency display unusual internet formation and NOX pastime [95]. NOX deficiency is related to persistent granulomatous infection and is related with the dearth of net formation (CGD). Excessive G6PD deficit might also resemble NOX insufficiency, leading to net disorder. COVID-19 sufferers have increased net stages [96]. Due to the fact internet improvement may additionally make contributions to tissue harm, organ harm, and loss of life, as evidenced via post-mortem specimens from COVID-19 sufferers [97], internet formation is taken into consideration as a driver of COVID-19. Elastase, an internet, has a role in COVID-19 pathogenesis with the aid of promoting SARS-CoV-2 infection and inducing increased blood pressure, thrombus formation, and vascular inflammation [98100].

Tissue injury that results in extensive oxidative strain sets in motion a vicious loop that increases internet production at the same time as additionally compromising extensible immunity [101]. Improved NETs are connected to excessive inflammation and in COVID-19 sufferers, they exacerbate sickness's severity and morbidity and in sections mortality. Elastase, DNase-1, and/or peptides for inhibition, in addition to IL-1b, might be used to goal NETs and their comments loop, thereby lowering the virulence of SARS-COV-2 [102,103].

Throughout infection, inflammasome is an important asset of the innate immunological defence system which controls effector cell chambers [104107]. Inflammasomes are defined as cytosolic protein complex molecules synthesised from numerous oligomeric molecules which realize DAMP AND PAMP (DAMP=Death Associated Molecular Pattern; PAMP=Pathogen related molecular patterns), to come across mobile-adverse chemicals and pathogenic materials [104]. They stimulate the production of the energetic variations of IL-1b and IL-18 with the aid of cleaving pro-IL-1b and seasoned-IL-18. Lengthy-term viral publicity promotes dysregulated irritation and auto inflammatory illnesses within the host. Viral replication triggers the exhilaration of the NLR pyrin area containing 3 (NLRP3) inflamma-which ends up in virus removal [105].

The (MHV) Murine COVID-19 mouse hepatitis virus stimulates NLRP3 inflammasomes causing panoptosis (pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis) to cause proinflammatory programmed mobile demise [106,107]. The negative effects of inflammasome disorder on the host propose balanced manipulation of inflammasomes is important in relation to immunological response and antiviral defense Both SARS and COVID-19 sufferers have a cytokine twister because of inflammasome activation [108]. The varied response in COVID-19 sufferers is thought to be because of a lack of immunological fitness, which prevents inflammasome activation from being effectively reduced. This causes COVID-19 to be greatly excessive, resulting in a cytokine catastrophe and vast tissue destruction [109]. In Peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs and THP-1 cells (human monocyte cell line); G6PD insufficiency reduces IL-1b presentation and inhibits inflammasome reinvigoration in response to LPS and ATP/nigericin inducement [110].

Reduced ROS generation through NOX is answerable for the reduced inflammasome activation; contrastingly H2O2 promotes inflammasome insinuation in G6PD-knockdown THP-1 cells. In G6PD-knockdown THP-1 cells, this comes out to reduce bactericidal action towards Staph. Aureus and E. coli, pointing that G6PD enzyme is necessary for the upkeep of the innate immunological response, inflammasome induction, and pathogen removal via redox equilibrium. [110]

Interplay of G6PD insufficiency and SARS-COV-2

SARS-COV-2 virulence in humans is affected by hereditary types of G6PD that are linked to an incapacitated immunological reaction [111]. COVID-19 is expected to spread more broadly in places or countries where the frequency of G6PD deficiency is high. This issue makes treating COVID-19 in G6PD-insufficient individuals difficult. G6PD insufficiency is linked to a changed immunological response, which includes NET synthesis, inflammasome exhilaration, bactericidal action, and antiviral activity [911,42,85,95,110]. As a result, G6PD deficiency is an issue during the COVID-19 pandemic. The clinical virulence of COVID-19 patients can be affected by factors. In COVID-19 patients, age is linked to increased morbidity and mortality [112]. When compared to middle-aged patients and the young, the elderly in accordance to COVID-19 (32%) had greater mortality rates [113]. The elderly with concomitant diseases including diabetes, hypertension, and obesity have a five-fold increased mortality risk [114]. During COVID-19 infection, oxidative damage and ageing go hand in hand. Aging has an impact on the immune system, as well as causing a pro-inflammatory condition. Infected older animals have more exasperating lesions and higher pro-inflammatory response in comparison to their younger counterparts [115] suggesting that as people become older, they accumulate more oxidative stress and have a worse anti oxidative defence, which might make viral infections worse [116]. G6PD-deficient mutations are thought to make COVID-19 more severe clinically. As a result, people with G6PD deficiency may turn over to being more anaemic in old age with COVID-19 than those with normal G6PD activity [117,118].

Ethnicity is a major contributing risk factor adhered to a greater prevalence of COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 is more common among African-Americans [119]. In comparison to G6PD-normal African Americans, G6PD-insufficient American-Africans had greater blood levels of GSSG with lipid peroxide [120]. Tocopherol and L-cysteine molecule co-supplementation is explained for counselling for enhanced oxidation tensity with a debillated immunological response in G6PD-deficient African-Americans infected with SARS-CoV-2 [121].

Prospective impact on COVID-19 treatment modalities by G6PD insufficiency

Malaria and amoebic infections are customarily treated with Chloroquine (CQ) and 4 amino quinolone drugs [122,123]. Because of its ability to measure irritability and immune response, it is used to treat auto immunological diseases such as lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis [124,125]. CQ has an unsaid effect on some viruses. CQ produces an affirmative response to fungal infections, HIV and HCV [126-129]. Yet it does not work in flu and dengue [126,130]. Hydroxychloroquine is a turnaround for chloroquine currently being tested in COVID-19 scientific research [131]. In some places, the possible apprehension of Hydroxychloroquine averse to COVID-19 may also lift up wellbeing concerns [132]. CQ or HCQ may be connected with haemolysis in the absence of G6PD, according to recent findings [133-135]. However, no case of haemolysis was detected after HCQ treatment in patients without G6PD in two large retrospective studies [136,137]. As a result, the hypothesis that chloroquine exposure causes oxidative haemolysis in people deficient in G6PD has not been established [138].


In addition to attempts in producing COVID-19 vaccines, studies show that adults do not fully acknowledge how the immune system works. The body's response to encroaching viruses is weakened by the loss of T and B cells as people grow in age. In addition, inflammation, or persistent infection, results in a decrease in the ability to respond to external stimuli. Those events weaken the immune system and decrease the immune response to vaccines [139]. However, specific anti-ageing drugs promise in parts that enhance the anti-bacterial response of the elderly population.

 In the old age population, the mTOR inhibitor decreases contamination, complements vaccination counteractions, and improves antiviral response [140]. Metformin is a well-known drug for diabetes that improves longevity in mice by blocking mTOR in a circular manner [141]. Patients treated with COVID-19 taking metformin have a lower mortality rate [142,143]. During aging, senolytic drugs decrease flare up and pull out senescent cell chambers selectively [144]. Those anti-aging products may promote energy that helps to reduce redox imbalance and decreases oxidant stress [145-147].

Those compounds, when combined in association with COVID-19, can decrease mortality, adhere to the treatment of the elderly etc. [148-151]. This enhances the use of therapeutic drugs for example calorie restriction mimetics and/or senolytics prior to vaccination to reduce the symptoms of aging or immune deficiency in adults [152]. These drugs can also assist adults with G6PD deficiency with the help of improving their anti-oxidative and immunological safeguards and vindications.


A courting among G6PD insufficiency, most frequent enzymopathy, and COVID-19, a terrifying pandemic, has been proven inside the current mini-review. The premise for this connection is redox homeostasis. Many cell immune responses are tormented by G6PD loss, together with extended manufacturing of the seasoned-inflammatory chemokine IL-8 with reduced inflammasome action. Some viral infestations are also linked to something called a G6PD insufficiency. G6PD insufficiency has exacerbated the virulence of COVID-19 contamination at some point of the cutting-edge pandemic. G6PD deficiency causes irregularities in redox homeostasis, which might be related to altered redox homeostasis. Alternative drugs, consisting of nutrition C, vitamin D, and NAC, in addition to positive present anti-getting old prescription drugs, appear encouraging for treatment of COVID-19 with vaccination.

Disclosure Statement

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author(s).


Author Info

Abhishek Dhawan* and Swarupa Chakole

Department of Community Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Citation: Abhishek Dhawan, Swarupa Chakole, G6PD Insufficiency, Redox Equilibrium, and Viral Infections: Insinuations for SARS-Cov-2, J Res Med Dent Sci, 2022, 10 (7): 000-000

Received: 26-May-2022, Manuscript No. JRMDS-22-49558; , Pre QC No. JRMDS-22-49558; Editor assigned: 30-May-2022, Pre QC No. JRMDS-22-49558; Reviewed: 13-Jun-2022, QC No. JRMDS-22-49558; Revised: 26-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. JRMDS-22-49558; Published: 12-Aug-2022