GET THE APP

Investigating Awareness of Dental Residents and Professors of the Ethical Standards in Dental Researches

Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science
eISSN No. 2347-2367 pISSN No. 2347-2545

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Review Article - (2021) Volume 9, Issue 12

Investigating Awareness of Dental Residents and Professors of the Ethical Standards in Dental Researches

Sahar Vardian Tehrani1*, Shima Bazmi2, Shabnam Bazmi3, Mehrzad Kiani4 and Saedeh Atarbashi-Moghadam5

*Correspondence: Sahar Vardian Tehrani, Department of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Email:

Author info »

Abstract

Background

Awareness of ethical standards and their application in conducting research is necessary because ignoring ethical issues may not only cause harm to the subjects but also lead to research ineffectiveness. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the awareness of dental residents and professors of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran, of the ethical standards in medical research.

Methodology

This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that was performed using a validated researcher-made questionnaire. In this study, 53 professors and 74 residents of different dental specialties participated. The data were analyzed using statistical tests and SPSS 21.00 software.

Findings

The male, female ratio in professors was 41.5% to 58.5% , while 62.2% of residents were female and 37.8% male. Regarding awareness of medical ethics, 66% of professors and 85% of residents selected the correct answers for the questions. The mean and standard deviation of professors' and residents’ awareness were 0.5606±0.16230 and 0.6542±0.17693, from source1. Also, the levels of residents' and professors’ awareness of the ethical standards in medical research were 0.65 and 0.59, respectively, using Levene’s Test and considering the significance level of p=0.041. In professors’ part the lowest score belonged to “Written consent is required in intervention research” and in residents’ part the lowest one was about “In some cases, prisoners can be promised a reduced sentence as a reward for their cooperation in conducting a research project”.

Conclusion

Professors and dental residents had acceptable awareness of the ethics in medical research, and the level of awareness was higher in dental residents compared to professors. There was no significant difference in the awareness of dental residents of the ethical standards in dental research by age, gender, and field of specialty. Also, there was no significant difference in the awareness of dental professors by age, gender, specialty, years of service, and participation in the research project or dissertation. Obtaining consent for performing research and paying more attention to vulnerable groups during research projects are items that must be mentioned more.

Keywords

Ethical standards, ethics in research, professors, dental students

Introduction

Dentistry is one of the important branches of medical sciences, which has made great progress in recent years due to extensive scientific researches. Today, awareness of ethical standards and their application in conducting research are among the requirements to carry out research activities because ignoring ethical issues and analysis of potential ethical problems may not only cause harm to the subjects but also lead to implementation problems and research ineffectiveness. Although ethical commitments are of particular importance in all branches, they require special emphasis in clinical and research fields associated with medical sciences due to the specific nature of medicine, which is related to human life and health [1]. Accordingly, a section is currently dedicated to the requirements of professionalism in all specialized reference books. Nowadays, almost all scientific journals are recently considering ethical approval as the prerequisite for the publication of articles. There have been instances of immoral medical research activities on humans and animals worldwide in history, including infected blood transfusions to 40 individuals at the Robert Koch Institute, typhoid vaccine and the death of thousands in German camps, the death of many twins for genetic investigations, the death of seven thousand Japanese while performing research on the plague, inserting infecting substances into wounds to examine the effects of sulfonamides, and transferring Anopheles mosquitoes from swamps for malaria experiments. Accordingly, the Nuremberg Code was adopted in 1947, after which the Helsinki Code was approved around seventeen years later in 1964, explicitly addressing the issue of research ethics on vulnerable groups. In Iran, the development of codes for the protection of human subjects in medical research began in 1997, and the national codes of ethics in medical research were approved in 26 principles in 2000. Numerous ethics guidelines are now developed and published by the Ministry of Health in different research areas, including clinical trials, stem cells, gametes and embryos, vulnerable groups, laboratory animals, blood and human tissues, genetic research, and many others to provide the researchers with the practical benchmarks [2].

However, some researches indicate that the process of implementation and monitoring of research projects is not desirable in the Middle Eastern countries. which does not seem to be comprehensively considered. However, there is no consensus on how much information should be made available to research volunteers. Observance of individual autonomy and freedom are also of great importance [3].

Considering the above, it seems that conducting this research in terms of investigating the awareness of dental residents and professors of the principles and standards of ethics in research can facilitate serious future planning, along with practical workshops and courses related to this area or other similar measures.

Material and Methods

This is a descriptive cross-sectional study whose population included the dental residents and professors of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. The researcher-made questionnaires were prepared by reviewing the available texts and articles and obtaining the opinions of experts. The validity of the questionnaires was assessed based on the opinions of 15 experts, and the content validity ratio (CVR) as well as content validity index (CVI) was used to evaluate the validity of the final questionnaires. The CVR value for each item was more than 80% and 71% in the questionnaires for the professors and residents, respectively. The CVI value based on a 4-item scale (irrelevant, somewhat relevant, relevant, and completely relevant) was more than 85% and 80% for each item in the questionnaires for the professors and residents, respectively. The reliability of the questionnaires was 92% and 86% for the professors and residents, respectively, using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which indicated acceptable validity and reliability of the questionnaire. The questionnaires consisted of two main parts, the first of which reflected demographic characteristics and the second investigated the participants’ awareness of the ethical standards in the research in the form of questions with correct and incorrect answers (34 questions in the residents’ questionnaire and 30 questions in the professors’ questionnaire). The questionnaires were completed by 53 professors and 74 residents according to the statistics expert and through the census.

Being a full-time faculty member of the School of Dentistry of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences with at least one year of experience was the inclusion criterion for the professors while starting residency in one of the dentistry specialties was considered as the inclusion criterion for the residents. Some explanations were given to the participants about the research and its necessity at the beginning of the work, while appropriate answers were also provided for their potential questions, along with obtaining their verbal consent to take part in the study.

Descriptive statistical methods such as determining the mean and median, and if necessary, other indicators such as the relationship between variables were used in data analysis. Final data analysis was performed using statistical tests and SPSS 21 software.

Findings

According to the findings of the study, of the total number of 53 professors participating in various specialties, 41.5% were male and 58.5% were female, and most were in the age range of 36 to 45 years. Out of the studied professors, 9.4% had 11 to 15 (minimum), and 32.1% had 1 to 4 years of experience (maximum).

Among the residents, 62.2% were female and 37.8% were male, the majority of whom were in the age range of 20 to 30 years. The highest and lowest number of residents participating in the study were in the first (n=43, 58.5%) and third (n=13, 17.6%) year of residency, respectively. Restorative dentistry had the highest frequency among all participants with 36.5%.

The binominal test was used to examine research questions based on the nature of the tools. The results of investigating the dental professors’ awareness of ethical standards in medical research (Table 1).

Items Frequency Frequency percentage Mean Sig.
To conduct research in children, the consent of the parents must be obtained in addition to the cooperation of the child. Correct 51 0.96 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 2 0.04
The first statement on ethics in medical research was the Nuremberg Code. Correct 42 0.81 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 10 0.19
The Nuremberg Codes are one of the oldest codes of ethics in research Correct 16 0.3 0.5 .005a
Incorrect 37 0.7
According to the Nuremberg Code, research on vulnerable groups is possible with considerations. Correct 23 0.45 0.5 .576a
Incorrect 28 0.55
In Iran, the ethics of research are assessed based on the provisions of the 2008 Helsinki Code. Correct 45 0.87 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 7 0.13
Obtaining informed consent is one of the main components of conducting research. Correct 45 0.87 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 7 0.13
Obtaining informed consent from the participants aims to minimize their harm and abuse. Correct 35 0.69 0.5 .011a
Incorrect 16 0.31
In a study based on ethics, it is believed that considering individual interests and independence is more important than maximizing collective comfort and well-being. Correct 33 0.63 0.5 .070a
Incorrect 19 0.37
In obtaining the consent, providing basic information is sufficient and there is no need to provide all the information. Correct 20 0.38 0.5 .126a
Incorrect 32 0.62
People who need serious medical services are among the most vulnerable groups in research Correct 37 0.71 0.5 .003a
Incorrect 15 0.29
In vulnerable groups, therapeutic research is usually more ethically accepted than non-therapeutic research. Correct 29 0.55 0.5 .583a
Incorrect 24 0.45
If a drug or therapeutic method is to be studied in children, the research should be first carried out in animals, adults, and older children. Correct 48 0.92 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 4 0.08
Research that can be carried out in adults does not need to be done in children. Correct 32 0.62 0.5 .126a
Incorrect 20 0.38
Considering the definition of minimum risk in clinical research is ethically important. Correct 29 0.56 0.5 .488a
Incorrect 23 0.44
If the subject comes out of the state of disability during the research, the consent of the subject must be also obtained. Correct 39 0.74 0.5 .001a
Incorrect 14 0.26
If it is not possible to obtain consent due to the nature of the research, the research can be carried out with the approval of the Research Ethics Review Committee. Correct 49 0.92 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 4 0.08
One of the tasks of the Research Ethics Review Committee is to review the research proposals from a scientific point of view. Correct 48 0.92 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 4 0.08
The subjects can withdraw at any stage of the research. Correct 31 0.6 0.5 .212a
Incorrect 21 0.4
It is not important to consider ethical issues in the stage of reviewing texts and analyzing data. Correct 50 0.94 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 3 0.06
There are no ethical problems if the treating physician and the researcher are one person. Correct 47 0.89 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 6 0.11
Written consent is required in intervention research. Correct 15 0.29 0.5 .003a
Incorrect 37 0.71
The research ethics review committee should review all university projects. Correct 27 0.51 0.5 1.000a
Incorrect 26 0.49
When the researcher has a higher position than the person under study, the consent must be obtained by a trusted third party. Correct 45 0.85 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 8 0.15
In a clinical trial, it is not necessary to inform the subjects whether they are in the experimental or control group. Correct 43 0.84 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 8 0.16
The researcher has the main responsibility regarding confidentiality of the subjects’ secrets. Correct 46 0.9 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 5 0.1
Written consent must be obtained from parents in examining a new drug to control pediatric dental infection. Correct 28 0.53 0.5 .784a
Incorrect 25 0.47
There are no special executive regulations called subject protection codes in research in our country. Correct 44 0.83 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 9 0.17
Both the researcher and the subject must be insured when conducting research. Correct 49 0.92 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 4 0.08
Since the duration of the research, the way it is performed, and the type of intervention in clinical trials is a specialized matter, there is no requirement to inform the subject of such cases, while strictly observing the scientific standards and professional ethics. Correct 51 0.96 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 2 0.04
The researcher is responsible to plan properly for the safety of the research. Correct 42 0.81 0.5 .000a
Incorrect 10 0.19
Total Correct 35 0.66 0.5 .027a
Incorrect 18 0.34

Table 1: The results of binominal test in investigating the dental professors’ awareness of the ethical standards in medical research.

Since the significance criterion obtained in the output (0.027) is less than 0.05, the null hypothesis can be rejected. Therefore, it can be said that the awareness of dental professors of the ethical standards in medical research is desirable (given the cumulative frequency of the Correct answers), and the difference observed is not due to chance or accident.

Regarding the items of the studied component, since the test is significant at the level of 0.05, it can be claimed that the awareness of dental professors of the ethical standards in medical research is desirable (given the cumulative frequency of the Correct answers). In items such as “In a study based on ethics, it is believed that considering individual interests and independence is more important than maximizing collective comfort and well-being”, “In obtaining the consent, providing basic information is sufficient and there is no need to provide all the information”, “In vulnerable groups, therapeutic research is usually more ethically accepted than non-therapeutic research”, “Research that can be carried out in adults does not need to be done in children”, “Considering the definition of minimum risk in clinical research is ethically important”, “The subjects can withdraw at any stage of the research”, “The research ethics review committee should review all university projects”, and “Written consent must be obtained from parents in examining a new drug to control pediatric dental infection”, Since the test is not significant at the level of 0.05, it can be claimed that the awareness of dental professors of the ethical standards in medical research (given the relatively equal cumulative frequencies of the Correct and Incorrect answers) is moderate.The results of investigating the dental residents’ awareness of the ethical standards in medical research(Table 2).

Items Frequency Frequency percentage Mean Sig.
To conduct research in children, the consent of the parents must be obtained in addition to the cooperation of the child. Incorrect 2 0.03 0.5 .000a
Correct 72 0.97
The first statement on ethics in medical research was the Nuremberg Code. Incorrect 48 0.65 0.5 .014a
Correct 26 0.35
According to the Nuremberg Code, research on vulnerable groups is possible with considerations. Incorrect 33 0.45 0.5 .416a
Correct 41 0.55
In Iran, the ethics of research are assessed based on the provisions of the 2008 Helsinki Code. Incorrect 41 0.55 0.5 .416a
Correct 33 0.45
Obtaining informed consent is one of the main components of conducting research. Incorrect 3 0.04 0.5 .000a
Correct 71 0.96
Obtaining informed consent from the participants aims to minimize their harm and abuse. Incorrect 17 0.23 0.5 .000a
Correct 57 0.77
In obtaining the consent, providing basic information is sufficient and there is no need to provide all the information. Incorrect 44 0.59 0.5 .130a
Correct 30 0.41
People who need serious medical services are among the most vulnerable groups in research Incorrect 26 0.35 0.5 .014a
Correct 48 0.65
In vulnerable groups, therapeutic research is usually more ethically accepted than non-therapeutic research. Incorrect 30 0.41 0.5 .130a
Correct 44 0.59
If a drug or therapeutic method is to be studied in children, the research should be first carried out in animals, adults, and older children. Incorrect 13 0.18 0.5 .000a
Correct 61 0.82
Research that can be carried out in adults does not need to be done in children. Incorrect 26 0.35 0.5 .014a
Correct 48 0.65
Considering the definition of minimum risk in clinical research is ethically important. Incorrect 5 0.07 0.5 .000a
Correct 69 0.93
The Research Ethics Review Committee is required to approve research on vulnerable groups. Incorrect 11 0.15 0.5 .000a
Correct 63 0.85
If the subject comes out of the state of disability during the research, the consent of the subject must be also obtained. Incorrect 19 0.26 0.5 .000a
Correct 55 0.74
it is not ethically possible to conduct research with serious harm on prisoners, even if they have definite consent. Incorrect 16 0.22 0.5 .000a
Correct 58 0.78
In some cases, prisoners can be promised a reduced sentence as a reward for their cooperation in conducting a research project. Incorrect 60 0.81 0.5 .000a
Correct 14 0.19
If it is not possible to obtain consent due to the nature of the research, the research can be carried out with the approval of the Research Ethics Review Committee. Incorrect 40 0.54 0.5 .561a
Correct 34 0.46
One of the tasks of the Research Ethics Review Committee is to review the research proposals from a scientific point of view. Incorrect 29 0.39 0.5 .081a
Correct 45 0.61
The subjects can withdraw at any stage of the research. Incorrect 6 0.08 0.5 .000a
Correct 68 0.92
It is not important to consider ethical issues in the stage of reviewing texts and analyzing data. Incorrect 53 0.72 0.5 .000a
Correct 21 0.28
There are no ethical problems if the treating physician and the researcher are one person. Incorrect 36 0.49 0.5 .908a
Correct 38 0.51
The researcher is responsible to plan for the safety of the research. Incorrect 9 0.12 0.5 .000a
Correct 65 0.88
Written consent is required in intervention research. Incorrect 0 0 0.5 .000a
Correct 74 1
Sometimes, the authority of the person under study can be limited depending on the subject of the research. Incorrect 31 0.42 0.5 .201a
Correct 43 0.58
When the researcher has a higher position than the person under study, the consent must be obtained from a trusted third party. Incorrect 37 0.5 0.5 1.000a
Correct 37 0.5
In a clinical trial, it is not necessary to inform the subjects whether they are in the experimental or control group. Incorrect 13 0.18 0.5 .000a
Correct 61 0.82
The researcher has the main responsibility regarding confidentiality of the subjects’ secrets. Incorrect 3 0.04 0.5 .000a
Correct 71 0.96
Written consent must be obtained from parents in examining a new drug to control pediatric dental infection. Incorrect 5 0.07 0.5 .000a
Correct 69 0.93
There are no special executive regulations called subject protection codes in research in our country. Incorrect 59 0.8 0.5 .000a
Correct 15 0.2
Both the researcher and the subject must be insured when conducting research. Incorrect 21 0.28 0.5 .000a
Correct 53 0.72
Since the duration of the research, the way it is performed, and the type of intervention in clinical trials is a specialized matter, there is no requirement to inform the subject of such cases, while strictly observing the scientific standards and professional ethics. Incorrect 52 0.7 0.5 .001a
Correct 22 0.3
The researcher is responsible to plan properly for the safety of the research. Incorrect 10 0.14 0.5 .000a
Correct 64 0.86
The Strasbourg Codes are one of the oldest codes of ethics in research Incorrect 48 0.65 0.5 .014a
Correct 26 0.35
Total Incorrect 11 0.15 0.5 .000a
Correct 63 0.85

Table 2: The results of binominal test in investigating the dental residents’ awareness of the ethical standards in medical research.

Since the significance criterion obtained in the output (0.001) is less than 0.05, the null hypothesis can be rejected. Therefore, it can be said that the awareness of dental residents of the ethical standards in medical research is desirable, and the difference observed is not due to chance or accident.

Regarding the items of the studied component, since the test is significant at the level of 0.05, it can be claimed that the awareness of dental residents of the ethical standards in medical research is high (given the cumulative frequency of the correct answers).

In items such as “According to the Nuremberg Code, research on vulnerable groups is possible with considerations”, “One of the tasks of the Research Ethics Review Committee is to review the research proposals from a scientific point of view”, “In obtaining the consent, providing basic information is sufficient and there is no need to provide all the information”, “In vulnerable groups, therapeutic research is usually more ethically accepted than non-therapeutic research”, “If it is not possible to obtain consent due to the nature of the research, the research can be carried out with the approval of the Research Ethics Review Committee”, “There are no ethical problems if the treating physician and the researcher are one person”, “Sometimes, the authority of the person under study can be limited depending on the subject of the research”, and “When the researcher has a higher position than the person under study, the consent must be obtained from a trusted third party”, since the test is not significant at the level of 0.05, it can be claimed that the awareness of dental residents of the ethical standards in medical research (given the relatively equal cumulative frequencies of the Correct and Incorrect answers) is moderate.

Independent t-test was used to investigate the differences in the awareness of professors and dental residents of the ethical standards in medical research.

Number Mean SD
Awareness Professors 53 0.5906 0.1623
Residents 74 0.6542 0.17693

Table 3: Variable descriptive indicators comparing the awareness of professors and dental residents of the ethical standards in medical research

Based on the results obtained from independent t-test, since t is significant in the studied variable with the value of 2.068 at the significance level of 0.05 (p = 0.041), the null hypothesis (no difference between two independent means) is rejected and the research hypothesis (the difference between two independent means) is confirmed. Therefore, there is a difference between the awareness of professors and dental residents of ethical standards in medical research. Comparison of the mean of the two groups shows that dental residents had a higher awareness of ethical standards in medical research (0.65) than professors (0.59).

Multivariate analysis of variance was used to investigate the difference in awareness of dental residents of the ethical standards in medical research by demographic components.

Sig. F Mean of squares Df. Sum of Squares Indicator
Source of Changes
0 350.127 8.695 1 8.695 Covariate effect
0.385 0.765 0.019 1 0.019 Age
0.175 1.885 0.047 1 0.047 Gender
0.233 1.372 0.034 7 0.239 Specialty
0 12.393 0.308 2 0.616 Residency year
0.025 62 1.54 Error
74 34.341 Total

Table 4: Summary of the results of multivariate analysis of variance comparing awareness of dental residents of the ethical standards in medical research by their demographic components.

According to above data, given that the value of F with (different) degrees of freedom is not significant in the components of age, gender, and specialty at the level of α = 0.05, it can be concluded that there is no significant difference between the awareness of dental residents of the ethical standards in medical research by age, gender, and specialty.

Also, since the value of F with degrees of freedom (2 and 62) is significant in the components of the residency year at the level of α = 0.05, it can be concluded that there is a significant difference between the awareness of dental residents of the ethics in medical research by year of their residency. The results of the post hoc test showed that the second- and third-year residents had a higher level of awareness compared to the first-year residents, but there was no significant difference between the second- and third-year residents.

Multivariate analysis of variance was used to investigate the difference in awareness of dental professors of the ethical standards in medical research by demographic components.

The hypothesis of homogeneity of variance of within-group scores was investigated using Levene’s test. Considering that the value of F was not significant at the level of α=0.05, the hypothesis of homogeneity of data variance and regression slope was inferred.

Sig. F Mean of squares Df. Sum of Squares Indicator
Source of Changes
0 145.67 2.776 1 2.776 Covariate effect
0.526 0.761 0.014 3 0.043 Age
0.795 0.069 0.001 1 0.001 Gender
0.083 2.48 0.047 3 0.142 Years of service
0.086 1.967 0.037 9 0.337 Specialty
0.186 1.677 0.032 4 0.128 Project participation
0.019 26 0.496 Error
47 17.894 Total

Table 5: Summary of the results of multivariate analysis of variance comparing awareness of dental professors of the ethical standards in medical research by their demographic components.

According to Table 5, given that the value of F with (different) degrees of freedom is not significant in the components of age, gender, specialty, years of service, and project participation at the level of α = 0.05, it can be concluded that there is no significant difference between the awareness of dental professors of the ethical standards in medical research by age, gender, specialty, years of service, and participation in the research project or dissertation.

Discussion

Sickle cell disease is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder which is common in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mediterranean areas, Arabian Peninsula, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. According to the World Health Organization, African population has the highest prevalence of the disease that ranges from 10-40%, and in countries where the trait prevalence is over 20%, the disease affects about 2% of the people. Generally, it is estimated that 7% of the overall populations in the world are carriers of hemoglobinopathies.

The phytotherapy is recently used as an alternative medicine that can provide relief for SCD patients. The review of the literature indicated that various plants have been tested and shown to have anti-sickling potential effects, of which was Curcuma longa. It was reported that the extracts of rhizomes of C. longa have several pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, healing, cholesterol-lowering, hypoglycaemic, anti-Alzheimer, anti-plasmodial, antioxidant, anti-venom, antibacterial, antifungal, antipyretic, and analgesic properties. It also has protective potential against diabetic retinopathy and other pathologies.

In this study, 49 fresh whole blood samples of confirmed sickle cell disease patients were collected. Majority 57.1% of cases were males (M: F=1: 0.75). Average (±SD) age of cases was 28.2 (± 9.97) years. Average percentage of sickled RBC before adding the extracts was 23.5 ± 4.2% and, after adding Fenugreek seed extract the mean percentage of sickled cells was significantly decreased to 9.1 ± 3.3 (p value<0.001), and when adding Turmeric rhizome extract the mean percentage of sickled RBC was significantly decreased to 7.8 ± 3.5 (p value<0.001). Between the two products, Turmeric rhizome extract had shown to be more active when compared with Fenugreek seed extract but the difference is not significant (p-value=0.025). Turmeric rhizome extract was found to be effective agent with 66.81% anti-sickling activity and Fenugreek seed extract with 61.28% reversal anti-sickling effect.

The anti-sickling potential of extracts from different organs (rhizomes, roots, leaves, petals, and sepals) of Curcuma longa was described by the researchers.18 The most recent study of this plant for SCD management has also reported that the anti-sickling potential of different parts of Curcuma longa. Their results revealed that extracts of Curcuma longa leaves, which are rich in anthocyanin, have a prominent anti-sickling activity.

According to several studies, the anti-sickling effect of plants is mainly due to the presence of anthocyanins and organic acids. Anthocyanins interact with HbS, competing with the polymerization process and preventing RBC sickling. The total aqueous extracts as well as the total methanol extracts of different organs of Curcuma longa have shown considerable anti-sickling properties. Several studies found that extracts of Curcuma longa, including from the flowers, contain large amounts of total polyphenols which have characteristic antioxidant and scavenging properties.

Discussion and Conclusion

The observance of ethical standards in medical research in Iran has been seriously studied for many years, given the specific religious and cultural background of the country. Numerous studies on this issue have been published at the national level, including articles on ethical principles in research related to surgery. There are also articles on the need for researchers to consider ethical principles while conducting medical research. In an Iranian article, ethical issues have been mentioned in research related to organ and tissue transplantation [4].

Based on the research findings, it is clear that the awareness of dental residents of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences of the ethical standards in medical research was at a high and acceptable level. It is probably associated with the effects of professors’ behavior and practice on students, attractiveness and correct understanding of medical ethics and forensic dentistry in the general course, and students’ experiences regarding ethical challenges with patients in different wards. However, the professors had lower scores.

In a similar study on professors and students of Gonabad University of Medical Sciences in 2013, student-related and managerial-environmental domains were reported as the most important reasons for ethical deficiencies in research, which was contrary to our report. In a similar study in Isfahan between 2001 and 2015, it was reported that the observance of ethical scientific principles in humanities research has a long way to go to reach the desired level in general student studies. However, the process of observing the principles showed improvement in Medical ethics during the research, especially comparing 5-year courses.

Also, in a study on knowledge, awareness, and attitudes towards research ethics in Middle Eastern dental schools, it was found that a 3-day workshop on research ethics for physicians and scientists at the University of Nigeria improved knowledge and application of research ethics, and international guidelines, rules, and regulations.

In another article on research ethics among dentists in India in 2014, participants had desirable attitudes towards research ethics, but their knowledge and behavior required significant improvement.

However, it seems that consideration of ethical issues while conducting medical research has not yet become a requirement for all researchers. Accordingly, in a 5-year research project in Iran, which reviewed all research projects, the following results were obtained: There was a section for the ethical considerations in 85.5% of the total plans, and 96.6% of the clinical trials. Subjects were informed about participating in the study in 68.4% of cases, and the prediction of informed consent was only in 66.8% of cases, of which 50.9% consents were in written form. Informed consent was obtained in 80% of clinical trials, of which 85.5% were in written form, and out of 60 clinical trials, 63.3% had referred to research ethics committees and obtained the approval of the ethics committee [5].

According to the research findings, 66% of professors and 85% of residents selected the correct answers regarding the level of awareness of medical ethics, and there was a statistically significant difference between the awareness of professors and students; however, there was no significant relationship between the awareness of the professors and residents by demographic characteristics.

According to the findings of the study, the level of awareness of dental professors was lower than that of residents. It is probably because professors are not directly involved in the research work in many cases, and more research is carried out by residents with the support and guidance of professors, which requires consideration. It also indicates the importance of workshops related to ethical standards in research and the need for active participation of professors in these workshops, because they play a fundamental role in educating students who are the future doctors and dentists.

Given the importance of the subject and the need to consider ethical issues in conducting research, and also according to the findings of this research project, it seems that professors and faculty members of various specialties are somewhat unfamiliar with the ethical principles in research. Therefore, it is necessary to take steps to eliminate this shortcoming through effective workshops and training courses.

According to McGoldrick, the problem should not be probably in mere theoretical training, which has short-term effectiveness even for residents. In other words, training that is primarily based on mere lectures and theoretical explanations is no longer effective [6]. On the other hand, the professional involvement of professors and focused dental courses for students can be another important factor in the lack of opportunities to learn ethical principles in research.

Therefore, it may be better to use the same training opportunities available in the faculty for professors and students because most research is carried out in academic environments. The development of such research for the accurate evaluation of national medical schools seems necessary to make accurate planning possible.

Acknowledgements

This research was conducted in the School of Dentistry of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. The authors would like to thank the professors and residents who helped in conducting this research. They would also express their special thanks to Mr. Espari, who carried out the statistical analyses of this project.

References

Author Info

Sahar Vardian Tehrani1*, Shima Bazmi2, Shabnam Bazmi3, Mehrzad Kiani4 and Saedeh Atarbashi-Moghadam5

1Department of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Periodontist and Implantologist, Rajiv Gandi University Of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India
3Department of medical ethics, Researcher of Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Department of medical ethics, Researcher of Traditional Medicine and Materia Medica Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran
 

Citation: Sahar Vardian Tehrani, Shima Bazmi, Mehrzad Kiani, Saedeh Atarbashi-Moghadam Investigating Awareness of Dental Residents and Professors of the Ethical Standards in Dental Researches, J Res Med Dent Sci, 2021, 9(9): 160-170

Received: 01-Dec-2021 Accepted: 15-Dec-2021 Published: 22-Dec-2021

cappadocia tours
cappadocia hotels
cappadocia balloon flights

paper.io

agar io

wormax io