Morphometry and Histogenesis of Human Fetal Suprarenal Gland in Different Gestational Age Groups
During the fetal life there is a remarkable increase in the size of the suprarenal glands mainly due to the presence of a well-developed fetal zone, which involutes after birth. This zone comprises about 80% of the fetal suprarenal cortex at term In this study the different morphological and histological variations of the suprarenal gland in I, II, III trimesters were analysed. The size of the suprarenal gland plays a major role in its functional activity and indirectly evaluates the wellbeing of the fetal health and development. Thus the present study may be useful for clinicians especially in understanding the normal pattern of suprarenal development in fetal period and also to delineate any abnormal developmental problems. The results obtained from this study will be beneficial in understanding the development of suprarenal glands and also contribute to future studies in obstetrics, perinatology, and fetopathology and in radio diagnosis.
KeywordsPerinatology, Fetopathology, Fetal
Suprarenal gland also known as adrenal gland is paired structures which are situated on the upper pole of each kidney. During fetal development, suprarenal hormones like Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) are involved in the maturation of the lung and other developing systems. The suprarenal gland has an impressive ability to synthesis large amount of adrenal androgens which is also used by placenta to produce oestrogen. This study aims to Analyse and compare the morphology and the histological features of fetal suprarenal gland in various trimesters including the adult [1-5].
A total number of 33 normal human foetuses, eleven from each trimester (I, II, III) were collected. Comparison between the right and left suprarenal glands showed that the left was heavier than right in weight and also larger in dimensions in the 1st trimesters. The analysis of data in second trimester showed that the following parameters like thickness a weight were greater in kidney when compared to respective suprarenal glands but the breadth of the suprarenal gland was greater than the respective kidney. In the 3rd trimester the breadth of the\ suprarenal gland was greater than the respective kidney, also the weight of left suprarenal gland was heavier than the right suprarenal gland. Similar results were seen in adult samples (Table 1).
Table 1: Average dimensions of suprarenal gland and kidney.
The micrometry of suprarenal gland in 1st trimester shows reveals that medulla was characterized by presence of blood vessel and few chromaffin cells (Figure 1A). The medulla was rich in blood vessels, large chromaffin cells with pale staining cytoplasm and large peripherally placed nuclei are seen and also few sympathetic ganglion cells were present in 2nd trimester (Figure 1B). In the third trimester no distinct boundary between cortex and medulla were seen (Figure 1C). In the adult cases, Zona reticularis is characterized by the presence of reticular arrangement of cells with plenty of sinusoids. Medulla is characterized by large blood vessels and well defined chromaffin and sympathetic ganglion cells. There was a sharp demarcation between the cortex and medulla was noted (Figure 1D).
Figure 1. Microanatomy of suprarenal gland.
Discussion and Conclusion
The micrometric analysis showed that there was a progressive increase in the thickness of the capsule from 27.3 microns in first trimester to about 163.8 microns in a1ults. The cortex and medulla also showed progressive increase in thickness, with cortex showing maximum increase in thickness from 72\8 microns in first trimester to about 1911 microns in adult. The histological studies are similar to the findings of previous studies [6-11]. Hence the results obtained from this study will be beneficial in understanding the development of suprarenal glands and also contribute to future studies in obstetrics, perinatology, fetopathology and in radio diagnosis.
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Citation: S Sathiya, Morphometry and Histogenesis of Human Fetal Suprarenal Gland in Different Gestational Age Groups, J Res Med Dent Sci, 2021, 9(8): 138-140
Received: 16-Jul-2021 Accepted: 11-Aug-2021