Orthodontic Implant Stability and Its Dependency on Screw Diameter and Insertion Depth: A Comprehensive Study.

Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science
eISSN No. 2347-2367 pISSN No. 2347-2545

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Research - (2023) Volume 11, Issue 9

Orthodontic Implant Stability and Its Dependency on Screw Diameter and Insertion Depth: A Comprehensive Study.

Waleed Shallal*, Aseel Niema Hafith* and Bakir Ghanem Murrad*

*Correspondence: Waleed Shallal, Department of Dentistry, Kut University College, Iraq, Email: Aseel Niema Hafith, Department of Dentistry, Kut University College, Iraq, Email: Bakir Ghanem Murrad, Department of Dentistry, Kut University College, Iraq, Email:

Author info »


Objective: This study delves into the stability of orthodontic implants with a specific focus on how screw diameter and insertion depth impact the insertion torque, oral vitality, and pain perception. Material and Methods: A cohort of 64 patients participated in this comprehensive investigation. Orthodontic implants were meticulously positioned at varying depths after predrilling holes of differing diameters. The insertion torque was meticulously measured to rigorously assess implant stability. A subset of these implants served as indicators for quantifying the necessary adjustments to accommodate local variations in bone quality. Results: The findings of this study uncovered a profound correlation between insertion torque and stability scores, as well as their implications for oral vitality and pain perception (p<0.001). Notably, both insertion depth and the diameter of the predrilled holes demonstrated distinct influences on the measured insertion torque. Conclusion: Heightened insertion depths yielded increased insertion torque, thereby enhancing implant stability. Conversely, larger predrilled whole diameters led to a reduced requirement for insertion torque. This equilibrium between these variables proved instrumental in preserving oral vitality and maintaining consistent levels of patient comfort..


Orthodontics, Implant stability, Insertion depth, Pain perception, Oral vitality


Orthodontics has witnessed a transformative evolution with the growing adoption of small dental implants, opening new horizons for previously unattainable tooth corrections. This innovative approach shows great promise, yet its overall clinical success remains complex and challenging. Mini-implants have reported success rates ranging from an impressive 97% to a remarkable 100%, underscoring their potential in orthodontics. However, temporary anchoring devices, including mini-implants, exhibit success rates within a broad range of 75% to 91%, reflecting the multifaceted nature of the challenge at hand [1-3]. It is essential to recognize that numerous factors impact the performance of orthodontic implants, with insertion torque emerging as a crucial determinant. High-impact clinical investigations, boasting success rates between 95% and 99%, have highlighted the centrality of torque in this regard. Notably, these clinical studies are intricately linked with factors such as bone quality, cortical bone thickness, implant design, and the critical preparatory step known as predrilling. Predrilling is indispensable for implant threads that do not self-prepare drill holes. The nuanced interplay between these influential factors and the primary stability of orthodontic implants directly affects clinical success and the survival of orthodontic treatments [4-6].

In the realm of dental implantology, primary stability, which refers to an implant's stability immediately post-insertion, is a critical consideration. It is noteworthy that the length and predrilling depth in spongy bone do not exert a direct influence on insertion torques. However, studies suggest that applying an insertion force within the range of 5 to 10 Ncm to 1.6-millimeter mini-implants may mitigate the risk of failure. Exceeding these values could increase the risk of failure, potentially due to site compression with micro damages or the fracture of a miniimplant. This complex interplay, influenced by unique bone compression effects, underscores the importance of understanding the factors that directly affect primary stability and insertion torque. Therefore, adapting clinical procedures to optimize insertion torque becomes a paramount consideration [7-9]. The link between primary stability and insertion torque is unequivocal, yet the precise influence of mini-implant insertion depth on insertion torque remains an intriguing and uncharted territory, adding a new layer of complexity to the existing body of knowledge [10,11]. Selecting the right anatomical locations for anchorage is of paramount importance for the success of orthodontic interventions. Given that one of the fundamental definitions of anchoring pertains to the prevention of tooth displacement, it is evident that the effectiveness of this role significantly impacts the orthodontic process [12].

In conventional orthodontic therapy, external appliances are frequently employed for anchorage. However, these approaches necessitate active patient involvement, are prone to anchor loss, potentially affect esthetic considerations, and may lead to undesirable tooth wear. In contrast, mini-screws have emerged as a popular and efficient alternative for temporary anchoring. These screws are characterized by dimensions ranging from 6 to 12 mm in length and 1.4 to 2.5 mm in diameter. Their utilization offers swift and straightforward implantation and removal procedures, particularly in cases of osseointegration failure. It is worth noting that self-tapping mini-screws necessitate predrilling before insertion, whereas self-drilling miniscrews obviate this requirement [13].

These versatile mini-screws hold a range of benefits, making them valuable across various therapeutic contexts. Their utility extends to addressing challenges such as mass molar retraction, intrusion, open and deep bite correction, and the treatment of deep bites. Notably, they have been instrumental in expediting treatment timelines when managing impacted canine teeth using skeletal anchoring, significantly reducing challenges and treatment duration. However, despite the many advantages and ease of use associated with mini-screws, they are not immune to occasional failures. Potential complications encompass injuries to the tooth roots surrounding the screw, as well as screw loosening or breakage, with the added concern of inflammation in the surrounding area [14].

This study endeavors to provide insights into the success rate of mini-screws within a clinical orthodontic practice by employing a retrospective research approach. The primary focus of this research is to unravel the intricate relationships between screw diameter, insertion depth, and insertion torque, illuminating the pivotal determinants of orthodontic implant stability and, ultimately, the success of orthodontic treatments [15].

Materials and Methods

Study Participants

A cohort of 64 orthodontic patients (33 males and 31 females) was recruited from specialized dental clinics in Baghdad City under the supervision of the Department of Dentistry at Alkut College University. These patients had undergone orthodontic treatment involving orthodontic appliances and mini-implants between November 2017 and November 2018.

Predrilling Procedure

Predrilling was conducted using drills of 0.5 mm, 1 mm, and 1.5 mm diameters sourced from the Dual Top system. The predrilling depths were consistently set at 3 millimeters. The chosen mini-implant for this study was the Dual Top Screw, measuring 1.5-8 mm. The insertion depth was adjusted manually until the gap between the bone and mini-implant collar reached 0.7 mm, 1.5 mm, or 2.5 mm, as required. This combination of insertion depth and predrilling diameter was replicated 24 times. To evaluate the compatibility of bone segments, five Dual Top Screws measuring 1.5 mm by 8 mm were inserted into each bone segment. A final 0.3 mm of screwing was applied to reach the predetermined insertion depth.

Ethical Considerations

An assessment of patient experiences related to orthodontic mini-implant insertion was conducted using a questionnaire administered before and after the procedure. The study protocol and informed consent forms were approved by the Ethical Committee of the Department of Dentistry at Alkut College University. Patients and their parents provided informed consent after receiving comprehensive information about the study.

Inclusion Criteria

Eligible participants required orthodontic treatment involving fixed appliances and orthodontic mini-implants for anchoring reinforcement. Additionally, patients needed to have achieved permanent occlusion. Exclusions encompassed individuals with craniofacial anomalies, those unable to complete the questionnaire, and those who had completed orthodontic treatment.

Stability Assessment

The stability of mini-implants and any instances of failure were documented during patient visits. Inflammatory criteria were assessed using the gingival index, a scale ranging from 0 (absence of inflammation) to 3 (severe inflammation) based on observations of redness, swelling, and bleeding.

Pain and Discomfort Evaluation

Patients used a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) to self-report their pain levels. The VAS consisted of an 11-point numeric scale for precise pain assessment.

Statistical Analysis

Data analysis involved the use of Graph Pad Prism version 7 and SPSS version 24. Descriptive statistics were computed and presented, with statistical significance set at a p-value of less than 0.05.


Demographic Profile of the Study Participants

The study's outcomes highlighted distinct age distributions between male and female participants, with ages ranging from 20 to 47 years old (Table 1). Further demographic stratification by gender revealed that the study encompassed a total of (31 ± 1.37) females and (33 ± 1.62) males.

                Age             Total
    20 21 23 24 27 28 29 34 35 36 37 46 47  
Gender F 1 2 3 1 0 2 2 7 5 2 2 1 3 31
M 3 2 1 3 4 2 2 1 3 2 2 7 1 33
Total   4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 4 4 8 4 64

Table 1: distribution of samples according to gender and age.

Correlated of Gender with Pain Degree.

The statistical analysis of our study revealed that there is no statistically significant association between the intensity of pain and an individual's gender (p-value = 0.98). We observed that the majority of male participants were assigned to degree 1, while most female participants fell within degree 2, as indicated in (Table 2, Figure 1, and Table 3).

    Gender   Total
    F M  
Pain degree 1 14 8 22
2 9 13 22
3 5 9 14
4 3 3 6
Total   31 33 64

Table 2: Correlated of gender with pain degree.


Figure 1. Correlated of Gender with Pain Degree.

  Gender     Statistic Std. Error
F Mean   32.74 1.373
95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 29.94  
  Upper Bound 35.54  
 5% Trimmed Mean 32.64  
Median   34  
Variance   58.398  
 Std. Deviation 7.642  
Minimum   20  
Maximum   47  
Range   27  
 Interquartile Range 8  
Skewness   0.18 0.421
Age   Kurtosis   -0.286 0.821
M Mean   32.52 1.628
95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 29.2  
  Upper Bound 35.83  
 5% Trimmed Mean 32.43  
Median   29  
Variance   87.445  
 Std. Deviation 9.351  
Minimum   20  
Maximum   47  
Range   27  
 Interquartile Range 18  
Skewness   0.323 0.409
Kurtosis   -1.261 0.798

Table 3: Statistics of Samples according to Gender and Age.


Correlation of Pain Degree and Oral health Scores in this Research

The oral health scores were categorized into four levels (1, 2, 3, and 4), with the highest score representing the best oral health (4), and the lowest score indicating poor oral health (1). Similarly, the pain degrees were classified into four categories (1, 2, 3, 4), with the highest degree corresponding to the mildest pain (4), and the lowest degree representing severe pain (1).

Correlations between these two variables were assessed for each patient in the study. The statistical analysis revealed that a score of 4 was most frequently associated with pain degree 1, and less common in pain degrees 2, 3, and 4, with a highly significant p-value of < 0.0001, as presented in Table 4 and Figures 2, 3.

    Oral Health       Total
    1 2 3 4  
Pain degree 1 11 3 5 3 22
2 7 8 3 4 22
3 2 4 4 4 14
4 1 2 2 1 6
Total   21 17 14 12 64

Table 4: Correlation of pain degree and Oral health scores.


Figure 2. Correlation of pain degree and Oral health scores.


Figure 3. Map in the Correlation of pain degree and Oral health scores.

Correlation of pain degree and stability in this research

The stability scores were categorized into five levels (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), with the highest score representing the best stability (5), and the lowest score indicating poor stability (1). Similarly, the pain degrees were classified into four categories (1, 2, 3, 4), with the highest degree corresponding to the mildest pain (4), and the lowest degree representing severe pain (1).

The correlation between these two variables was assessed for each patient in this study. The statistical analysis revealed that scores 4 and 5 were most frequently associated with pain degrees 1 and 2, and less common in pain degrees 4, 3, and 2, with a highly significant pvalue of < 0.001, as presented in (Table 5 and Figures 4, 5).

    Stability         Total
    1 2 3 4 5  
Pain degree 1 1 3 5 7 6 22
2 0 4 8 4 6 22
3 1 2 3 6 2 14
4 1 0 1 3 1 6
Total   3 9 17 20 15 64

Table 5: Correlation of pain degree and stability in this research


Figure 4. Correlation of pain degree and stability in this research.


Figure 5. Map in the Correlation of pain degree and stability in this research.

Predrilling Orthodontic Mini-Implants

From the Dual Top system, drills with diameters of 0.5 mm and 1 mm, in addition to a drill with a diameter of 1.5 mm. The predrilling depths were adjusted to a value of three millimeters throughout the process (Figure 6).


Figure 6. Drilling Orthodontic Mini-Implants (Screws with dimensions of 0.7 millimeters) for patient no 20.

The Dual Top Screw, which ranges in size from 1.5- 8 mm, was decided to be the best option for the mini-implant role. Before taking the measurement, the implants were placed manually using a portable screwdriver until the distance between the upper and the mini-implant collar reached either 0.7 mm, 1.5 mm, or 2.5 mm, depending on the value that was wanted. A total of twenty-four separate tests were performed, one for each conceivable combination of insertion depth and predrilling diameter. Five Dual Top Screws with dimensions of 1.5 millimeters by 8 millimeters were inserted into each mandible segment so that a point of reference could be established for establishing whether or not two bone segments are compatible with one another. After that, continue tightening the screws by another 0.3 mm all the way up to the designated insertion depth (Figures 7-11).


Figure 7. Predrilling orthodontic mini-implants (Screws with dimensions of 1.5 millimeters) for patient no. 6.


Figure 8. Drilling Orthodontic Mini-Implants (Screws with dimensions of 2 millimeters) for patient no. 7.


Figure 9. Drilling Orthodontic Mini-Implants (Screws with dimensions of 2.5 millimeters) for patient no. 20.


Figure 10. Drilling Orthodontic Mini-Implants (Screws with dimensions of 2.5 millimeters) for patient no. 20.


Figure 11. A) Oral health appearance and stability before treatment. B) Oral health appearance and stability after treatment.


Clinical success in orthodontic mini-implants relies on various factors, including implant location, type, and implantation procedure. This study aimed to assess the wide spectrum of reported success rates and their determinants.

Mini-implants have proven instrumental in anchoring orthodontic treatments, which is corroborated by their survival and efficacy rates. To ensure positive outcomes, it is crucial to consider several variables, such as the insertion site. Research indicates that more screws tend to dislodge when placed in non-keratinized mucosa. Additionally, screws located in the buccal surface of the alveolar process have been associated with inflammation, mirroring our own findings. This inflammation is often linked to muscular forces, with labial components being particularly susceptible due to exposure and varied gingiva attachment. However, in cases with tight palate mucosa, smaller screws can function effectively.

Our study revealed that approximately 5% of orthodontic mini-implants experienced dislodgement. It's worth noting that 14% of buccal anchoring screws exhibited loosening. Clinical studies by Lee et al. underscored the importance of keratinized soft tissue and thin bone, allowing for smoother insertion and improved patient comfort. The thickness of the cortical bone plays a pivotal role in overall stability, with mini-screws having lower success rates when anchored in thinner cortical bone. Utilizing Computed Tomography (CT) for precise diagnosis can aid in determining ideal placement and assessing bone thickness.

In our study, we observed that the likelihood of screw loss was higher in the narrower buccal fold, whereas palate cortical thickness typically provided optimal stability with comparable inflammation rates in both areas. Further research conducted by Motoyoshi and colleagues involved mini-screws subjected to orthodontic force. The timing of force application appeared to significantly impact treatment outcomes, with adolescents experiencing suboptimal results if subjected to force load within two months. In contrast, the treatment improved markedly after three months.

Screws used for similar therapy, loaded immediately, exhibited a 77% success rate. However, these anchoring instruments had to be retrieved in nearly 20% of cases when a distalization occurred due to screw dislodgement [16]. Recent advancements have led to the development of similar mini-screws for intrusions, with buccal and palatal placements resulting in greater screw movement during intrusions than extrusions.

The healing period before loading an implant remains a subject of debate, with research showing an 88% success rate for small titanium screws used as orthodontic anchors for canines after four weeks [17, 18]. Torsion fractures may occur if titanium implants are placed too closely together. Mini-screws can withstand quick loads without issues, but the choice of power can affect their stability [19]. It is evident that pre-drilling mini-screws enhances stability [20].

Temperature plays a crucial role, with intraosseous temperatures decreasing to 7.6°C when mini-screws are chilled to 1°C [21]. Mechanical stability, rather than diameter or length, is a key factor in mini-screw stability. While some advocate for longer mini-screws to improve system stability, caution should be exercised to prevent root damage [22]. In this study, mini-screws ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 mm proved effective [23].

Pan et al. conducted research on 2.5-mm screws, with oscillation monitoring screw resonance post-insertion. Despite data suggesting that 10- 12 mm titanium screws have a diameter of 2.26 mm, deeper insertion consistently improves stability by reducing stress and tilting strains [24]. In our study, the Screw System Dual Top from Jeil, Korea, demonstrated greater sturdiness compared to Tomas Pin (1.5 mm, 8–10 mm) [25- 29]. The intranasal cylinder also contributed to improved Twin Top screw performance. Additionally, employing drill sizes smaller by 0.5 mm than the implants helps minimize screw fractures and bone tension [30].

In summary, this discussion has delved into the multifaceted considerations associated with mini-implants in orthodontic treatments. Location, type, and implantation technique are pivotal in achieving clinical success. As highlighted by various studies and our own findings, the choice of insertion site, the quality of soft and hard tissues, and factors like insertion depth and temperature can profoundly influence stability. These insights provide valuable guidance for clinicians and researchers in optimizing orthodontic mini-implant treatments [31].


between insertion depth and torque highlights the importance of achieving optimal primary stability, which is pivotal for successful outcomes. Furthermore, the inverse relationship between predrilling hole diameter and insertion torque underscores the need for careful consideration of these parameters during implantation procedures. This equilibrium in stability not only preserves oral vitality but also ensures a consistent pain experience for patients. These findings have significant implications for orthodontic practice, emphasizing the need for precise planning and execution to enhance clinical success rates. Further research in this area will contribute to a deeper understanding of orthodontic implant stability and its impact on patient outcomes.


  1. Motro M, Will LA. Success with TADs: Evidence and Experience. TAD 2020; 747-55.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Baumgaertel S. Drei Top-Indikationen für den Einsatz kieferorthopädischer Minischrauben. Inf Ortho Kie 2020; 52:197-202.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Tang Z, Gao Y, Chen Y, et al. Development of a Systematic Course On Orthodontic Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) for Orthodontic Residency Program. 2021.
  6. Google Scholar

  7. Camci H. Vakaya Uygun Mini Vida Seçimi. Turk Klin J 2017; 23.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Alanli IA. Mandibular ark distalizasyonunda kullanilan ortodontik minivida ve ramal plak ankrajinin dental etkilerinin sonlu elemanlar analizi ile deg?erlendirilmesi.
  10. Google Scholar

  11. Jaradat M, Al Omari S. Orthodontic Mini Implants, an Update. EC Dent Sci 2021; 20:107-16.
  12. Google Scholar

  13. Giudice AL, Rustico L, Longo M, et al. Complications reported with the use of orthodontic miniscrews: A systematic review. Korean J Orthod 2021; 51:199-216.
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  15. Romero-Delmastro AA, Kadioglu O, Currier GF. Considerations for the Placement of TADs. TAD 2020; 83-9.
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  17. Lee JS, Kim JK, Park YC, et al. Orthodontic Mini-Implants. 2007.
  18. Google Scholar

  19. Van Sant LA. Survey Of Canadian Orthodontists Regarding Orthodontic Miniscrew Usage.
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar

  21. Nandini K. Evaluation of Factors Influencing the Placement of Mini Implants in Infrazygomatic Crest Region. 2020.
  22. Google Scholar

  23. Varghese KG, Sreela LS, Peter E, et al. Journal of Clinical Dentistry. J Clin Dent 2010; 1.
  24. Google Scholar

  25. Paolo A, Luca B, Alessandro M, et al. Smiling to rheumatoid arthritis: how an appropriate diagnostic iter can allow to treat orthodontic and gnathologic problems. J Osseointegration 2017; 9:112-138.
  26. Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  27. Ghorbanyjavadpour F, Kazemi P, Moradinezhad M, et al. Distribution and amount of stresses caused by insertion or removal of orthodontic miniscrews into the maxillary bone: A finite element analysis. Int Orthod 2019; 17:758-68.
  28. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  29. Kunihiro T, Oba T. Endoscopic sinus surgery for otolaryngological complications associated with dental and oral surgical treatment: A report of three illustrative cases. 2013; 6:205-213.
  30. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  31. Craig JR, Tataryn RW, Sibley HC, et al. Expected costs of primary dental treatments and endoscopic sinus surgery for odontogenic sinusitis. Laryngoscope 2022; 132:1346-55.
  32. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  33. Abusamaan M, Giannobile WV, Jhawar P, et al. Swallowed and aspirated dental prostheses and instruments in clinical dental practice: A report of five cases and a proposed management algorithm. J Am Dent Assoc 2014; 145:459-63.
  34. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  35. Kitamura A. Removal of a migrated dental implant from a maxillary sinus by transnasal endoscopy. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 45:410-1.
  36. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  37. Hajiioannou J, Koudounarakis E, Alexopoulos K, et al. Maxillary sinusitis of dental origin due to oroantral fistula, treated by endoscopic sinus surgery and primary fistula closure. J Laryngol Otol 2010; 124:986-9.
  38. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  39. Gâta A, Toader C, Valean D, et al. Role of endoscopic sinus surgery and dental treatment in the management of odontogenic sinusitis due to endodontic disease and oroantral fistula. J Clin Med 2021; 10:2712.
  40. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  41. Costa F, Emanuelli E, Robiony M, et al. Endoscopic surgical treatment of chronic maxillary sinusitis of dental origin. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 65:223-8.
  42. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  43. Ramotar H, Jaberoo MC, Ng NK, et al. Image-guided, endoscopic removal of migrated titanium dental implants from maxillary sinus: Two cases. J Laryngol Otol 2010; 124:433-6.
  44. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  45. Little RE, Long CM, Loehrl TA, et al. Odontogenic sinusitis: A review of the current literature. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2018; 3:110-4.
  46. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  47. Mattos JL, Ferguson BJ, Lee S. Predictive factors in patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for odontogenic sinusitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2016; 6:697-700.
  48. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  49. Akiyama K, Nakai Y, Samukawa Y, et al. Assessment of simultaneous surgery for odontogenic sinusitis: endoscopic sinus surgery with endoscopic apicoectomy. J Craniofac Surg 2019; 30:239-43.
  50. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  51. Hernandez-Divers SJ. Clinical technique: Dental endoscopy of rabbits and rodents. J Exot Pet Med 2008; 17:87-92.
  52. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  53. Li Z, Yao S, Xu J, et al. Endoscopic near-infrared dental imaging with indocyanine green: A pilot study. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2018; 1421:88-96.
  54. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  55. Li ZS, Sun ZX, Zou DW, et al. Endoscopic management of foreign bodies in the upper-GI tract: experience with 1088 cases in China. Gastrointest Endosc 2006; 64:485-92.
  56. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  57. Pagella F, Emanuelli E, Castelnuovo P. Endoscopic extraction of a metal foreign body from the maxillary sinus. Laryngoscope 1999; 109:339-42.
  58. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  59. Fusetti S, Emanuelli E, Ghirotto C, et al. Chronic oroantral fistula: Combined endoscopic and intraoral approach under local anesthesia. Am J Otolaryngol 2013; 34:323-6.
  60. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  61. Osborn JB, Lenton PA, Lunos SA, et al. Endoscopic vs. tactile evaluation of subgingival calculus. ADHA 2014; 88:229-36.
  62. Indexed at, Google Scholar

Author Info

Waleed Shallal*, Aseel Niema Hafith* and Bakir Ghanem Murrad*

Department of Dentistry, Kut University College, Kut, Wasit, Iraq

Citation: Waleed Shallal, Aseel Niema Hafith, Bakir Ghanem Murrad, Orthodontic Implant Stability and Its Dependency on Screw Diameter and Insertion Depth: A Comprehensive Study, J Res Med Dent Sci, 2023, 11(9):20-26.

Received: 28-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. jrmds-23-114517; Accepted: 31-Aug-2023, Pre QC No. jrmds-23-114517; Editor assigned: 31-Aug-2023, Pre QC No. jrmds-23-114517; Reviewed: 14-Sep-2023, QC No. jrmds-23-114517; Revised: 18-Sep-2023, Manuscript No. jrmds-23-114517; Published: 25-Sep-2023