Salmonella and its Antigens

Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science
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Research - (2022) Volume 10, Issue 7

Salmonella and its Antigens

Sushmita Sharma* and Gargi Mude

*Correspondence: Sushmita Sharma, Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, DattaMeghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), India, Email:

Author info »


Salmonella infection (additionally known as salmonellosis) is a bacterial contamination that affects the intestines. Salmonella germs dwell inside the intestines of animals and human beings and are excreted through faeces. Humans are maximum normally infected via infected water or meals. Salmonella infection is generally followed with the aid of no symptoms. Inside eight to seventy two hours, others suffer diarrhoea, fever, and stomach pains. Without special therapy, most wholesome humans get better in some days. In uncommon situations, the diarrhoea as a result of salmonella infection is so extreme that it want hospital treatment proper once. If the contamination spreads beyond your intestines, it would purpose existence-threatening outcomes. If you go to international locations with inadequate sanitation, your probabilities of contracting salmonella are accelerated. Salmonellosis is a clinical contamination caused by Salmonella bacterium. It is also a food-borne disorder that are sicknesses because of substances that input the body by using the intake of food and are typically either infectious or toxic in nature. Diarrhea, fever, stomach pains, and vomiting are the maximum widely wide-spread signs in humans. Signs and symptoms typically appear among 12 and 36 hours after publicity and retain among and 7 days. Dehydration can arise because of greater critical infection on uncommon events. Severe sickness is much more likely to strike the elderly, children, and anybody with a weaker immune machine. Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are resulting from sure strains of Salmonella. Salmonella is split into two species: Salmonella bongori & Salmonella enterica, each of which has several subspecies. Inside a species, however, subgroups and serovars may additionally have hugely numerous disorder-causing skills. This suggests that subspecies-level epidemiologic categorization of organisms might help with Salmonella and other sickness manage. Because of the ingestion of infected meat and milk, both vegetarians and non-vegetarians are susceptible to Salmonella infections. Contamination is often disseminated by using the intake of tainted meat, eggs, water, or milk. Other foods which have come into contact with manure may transmit the sickness. Cats, puppies, and reptiles are some of the animals that could convey and transmit the virus. A stool check or blood exams are used to make the analysis.


Salmonella, Salmonellosis, Bacterium, Antigen, Diarrhoea


Enterobacteriaceae organisms are referred to as Salmonellae. They give rise to acidic substances and propellant from glucose and mannitol, and in some instances, sorbitol; these not often tumult sucrose or adonitol, & that they not often make indole. It isn't possible to supply acetylmethyl carbinol. These do now not disintegrate urea or deaminate phenylalanine in presence of water, regularly produce hydrogen disulphide on TSI, and depend entirely on citrate for carbon. These make decarboxylases for lysine and ornithine. Somatic and flagellar antigens link the many serotypes inside the organization, and maximum lines have diphasic flagella antigen variant. Salmonellae are in large part vertebrate intestinal parasites that cause enteritis and typhoid-like disorders in a huge range of mammals. The type species is Salmonella enterica, which has a G + C composition of 50–fifty three mol% in its DNA. Clinical bacteriologists first named the genus Salmonella to embody organisms that caused a definite shape of sickness in Homo sapiens and other creatures and have been antigenic ally similar. Salmonellae shared many biochemical characteristics, which turned into later located. Biochemical interest is being given greater weight of their definition than antigenic structure. Salmonella is a genus that consists of no longer just pathogenic serotypes for mammalian species, but also strains that were then notion to be biologically &chemically odd. Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori at the moment are notion to be its two species [1]. The typhoid and paratyphoid bacilli, in addition to the majority opposite serotypes answerable for sizeable ailment in mammalian species, are located in S. enterica subsp. enterica (subspecies I). The ultimate five subspecies (II–VI) are in general parasitic on coldblooded animals or stay within the wild [2].

Cultural characteristic and growth requirements

Salmonellae can also develop at temperatures ranging from 7 to 48 ranges Celsius, at pH 4–eight, and with aqua venture more than 0.ninety three. These might be able to do so in some circumstances, proliferate at 4C, and endure pH four extremes. Salmonellae grow nicely on widespread media nin both aerobic and anaerobic situations, developing colonies which can be almost equal to the ones of other Enterobacteriaceae. On first isolation or after adaption, simple carbon compounds and a huge variety of nitrogenous amalgamations are usable as carbon and strength sources, and a huge variety of nitrogen containing compounds can be used as N2 assets. Most of the people of salmonellae are prototrophic, which means they are able to thrive in a low-salt environment with an awesome carbon deliver. Auxotrophic serotypes adapted to a unmarried host species (see above) can expand on a minimum mildly added with a boom agent (s) [2]. O and H agglutinin ability is inhibited via the presence of a mucoid surface layer, the Kauffmann M antigen. The M antigen is unimportant for diagnostic purposes due to the fact it is equal in all variants of salmonella & is much like colonic acid additives seen in other Enterobacteriaceae. Most strains of Paratyphi B that reason enteric fever test fantastic for the 'mucoid-wall take a look at [2].


Salmonella diseases among people range in seriousness primarily according to serotype worried & the human host's health state. Salmonella disease is extra not unusual in youngsters who are less than 5 years in age, the advance aged, and those on immune compromising medicines than in wholesome humans. Maximum Salmonella strains are pathogenic, meaning they are able to infest and cause problems, proliferate, and live on in Homo sapiens cells which they are infecting, causing doubtlessly lie-threatening condition. Salmonella lines' capacity to live to tell the tale inside the host mobile is essential for pathogenesis, as traces without it are not virulent. Following Salmonella's intake with the aid of the host mobile, the microorganism is contained in a vacuole, a membrane compartment made of the host cellular membrane. Underneath everyday occasions, the presence of a bacterial foreign body could cause an immunological reaction inside the host cellular, resulting in lysosome fusion and the secretion of digesting enzymes to take away the organism living within cells [3].

After microorganisms are consumed, the Salmonella infection cycle begins. The germs enter the small intestine via the stomach. Salmonella’s infection is defined by the bacteria's adhesion to cells lining the intestinal lumen via fimbriae or pili. Salmonellae only bind to the Peyer patches' specialised epithelial cells (M cells). The bacteria are subsequently ingested through receptor-mediated endocytosis and transported to the lamina propria via phagosomes before being released. Salmonellae induces the incoming of mast cells present in tissues (typhoid AL strains) or neutrophils after they arrive (non-typhoid causing strains) [4].

Antigenic structure

The O antigens, warmness-solid polysaccharides found in the mobile wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the H antigens, warmth-labile proteins found within the flagella that have the practically particular property of diphasic variant in salmonellae, are used updated the serological styles of salmonellae. Surface polysaccharides that prevent organisms from being agglutinated by homologous O antisera, the maximum extraordinary instance being the Vi antigen of Typhi. The middle structure of O polysaccharides is the equal for all enterobacteria, and the aspect chains of sugars connected up to date the middle establish O specificity.

Salmonellae are divided in updated chemo types, every of which incorporates organisms with sugars of their facet chains which might be the same. Salmonellae with diverse O antigens, up-to-date E. coli lines from numerous O organizations and other enterobacteria, are frequently included in chemo types, however the organisms are serologically wonderful updated differences in the series of sugars in the aspect chains, in particular at the distal cease. Minor cross-reactions between salmonella O serogroups, up-to-date between salmonellae O antigens and different Enterobacteriaceae members, are alternatively up to date Mary [4].

A number of the H antigens found in Salmonella are also determined in Citrobacter; they may be made up of a large range of components which are organised in another way in diverse serotypes. The flagellar antigens in maximum salmonellae exist in two levels; updated completely discover a serotype, the antigenic additives found in both phases up-to-date be determined. The reader up to date consult reference books for records on up to date updated identify serotypes in guidance [5].

Variations in the O-antigen

Tough mutant lines can be grouped into a chain ranging from Ra, which simply lacks the O-precise facet chains, to Rb, which shows a revolutionary lack of sugar elements from the core, to Re, which shows a progressionist lack of carbohydrate parts in middle. Agglutinability and heat-stability tests in the existence of 0.3 percent w/v auramine are very beneficial for distinguishing easy from difficult forms. In those assays, hard traces of chemotypes Ra–e show off a consistent progression in their susceptibility to antibiotics, detergents, & colorings, notwithstanding the fact that the specific rough paperwork behave identically. Tough variation is unusual in nature, but it is enormous in traces which have been stored within the lab for many generations [6].

Plasmid conversions

As regards to O54, the number one observation of modifications inside the specificities of Salmonella o antigens due to plasmid conversion modified into made. Tonev (21, fifty 4: b:e,n,x) consists of a small plasmid, which even as out of region motives failure to precise issue O54; because of this, the plasmid less model (21:b:e,n,x), i.e. Minnesota of business enterprise O21, is long-established. In spite of the reality that the alternative 12 serotypes of sero group O54 had plasmids same to Tonev's, 86f68e4d402306ad3cd330d005134dac eight of them have plasmid less variations that do not particular O54; the latter O54 versions had been indistinguishable from serotypes already described in outstanding O serogroups [7].

As a stop prevent cease end result, the serotype Tonev might be characterised as 21, fifty four:b:e,n,x in a way just like that used for lysogenized versions.

Due to Winnipeg's loss of O54 expression (fifty four:e,h:1,five), a completely unique element (O8) no longer inside the maximum vital expressed thru that serotype emerges, this is transformed to Ferruch (8:e,h:1,five). However, neither of those serotypes generates the O-identifying antigen of the opportunity, i.e. serotype (8, fifty 4:e,h:1,5) traces have in no way been placed in nature. Winnipeg, in addition to the names of four precise serotypes from which O54 versions haven't all commenced to be observed, ought to be preserved. Proviso: the heterogeneous group O54 has been saved [7].

Variations among H antigen

Salmonella serotypes exhibit diphasic variation, which means they alternately express two types of flagella with differing antigenic specificities. In phase 1, Typhimurium creates antigenic specificity I flagella, while in phase 2 it produces antigenic specificity 12. Salmonellae switch phases at predictable intervals, which can be generated in the lab by growing them on semi-solid agar [8].

Flagellins, which are highly antigenic proteins encoded by twi separate, chromosomally positioned genes, are the primary constituents of flagellar filaments. (Segment 1) genes (fliC) and (fljB) (phase two). Salmonellae which are in phase one specific the fliC gene's flagellin, whilst those in phase 2 explicit the fljB gene's flagellin blended with a segment-1 genetic component repressor (coded through the fljA gene). The phase flipping system is complex, but it's miles controlled by using a recombinational occasion regarding a selected invertible DNA sequence (970 bp long) that incorporates the phase-2 operon's promoter region. The promoter is placed efficaciously to permit studying of both the fljB gene and the repressor (from the fljB gene).

The injective vicinity even regulates the prevalence of transposition& as a result, episodic transition, and operates efficaciously as a "flip-flop" transfer; it's far as a consequence related to different section-variable structures' analogous sequences [8]. Some Salmonella serotypes are monophasic, which means they simplest produce one phase of flagella in the wild. Inside the presence of H antiserum, Paratyphi A produces section 2 flagella containing antigens 1,five. as a result, within the Kauffmann White scheme, Paratyphi A, a herbal single phase containing strain in section two, is harvested along with the addition of H antiserum, e,n,x, forms with phase-one flagella of specific character&is decided on which might contain only one phase in phase one& in the character of solid because the normally taking place segment-two monophasic strain; natural serotypes fixed with one H segment are recognized to be related to mutations connected to regulatory genes [9].

New flagellar antigens

The sugar-phosphate continuations of the segment-1 flagellin locus (fliC) in strains of 5 variants – para typhi A (specificity a), Choleraesuis (c), Muenchen (d), Typhimurium I and Rubislaw (r) – determined out that the terminal additives of the genes are fairly conserved. That is probably due to their significance in flagellin protein poly. The middle part of the gene may be very variable in duration and collection, however has no effect on mobility due to flagella; the vital location on the genetic constitution, as it controls the important antigenic determinants of the uncovered flagellar protein inside the floor of flagella, is state of affairs to very little purposeful version. The center portions of the genetic constituentswhich are responsible for phase-1 flagellin protein formation of I specificity remains unchanged at the same time as programmed for six strains of Typhimurium with numerous gene pool of origins, (i.e., exceptional electrophoretic types as determined through the means of way of MLEE). Identically, the centre areas concerned with segment-1 flagellin sequences of Heidelberg serotype strains with antigen-specific actions of the R kind has been unwaryng. As a quit result, the fliC genetic compositions aren’t’ advancing with abnormally fast fees due to series flow [10].

Triphasic strains

The flpA gene had a middle area that encoded a segment-1 antigen (d) and a section-2 promoter. The triple phasic version expressed its actual phase-twoflagellar protein (e,n,x) as well as one (d) generally connected to sectionone flagella in section 2. while the triphasic isolate turned into grown in the existence of H anti-serum d, a doubly-phasic variation nearly identical from Rubislaw emerged, showing the usual segment-one and a couple of antigens of flagella (r:e,n,x) of that serotype.

Salmonella’s strains that are not motile however have flagella which can be based upon antigens and by appearance much that resembles to the movable figure lines are now and again identified. Non-fulfillment of Mot-lines in turning the motility organ around is assumed because of the flaws within the strength transduction procedure [11].

The few Gallinarum-Pullorum strains studied appears as if, they have intact genetic components coding for the flagellar-hook protein (flgK) which might be identical to those observed in Enteritidis. Therefore, the genetic basis for these lines' nonmotility is unknown, however it's been cautioned with the fear that it results from an abnormality in chromosome with respect to genetic composition of flagellar regulon (e.g.fliA) [11].

VI Antigen

VI is a capsule containing compound made up of numerous sugary subunits of a-(1!4)-related N-acetyl-Dgalactosaminouronic acid. It precludes the formation of a-(1! four)-connected N-acetyl-D-galactosaminouronic acid [12]. Immune serum-mediated killing is antiphagocytic (through using lowering C3b and antibody binding to LPS) and promotes peroxide resistance. VI’s synthesis charge and cellular-affiliation characteristics are managed by manner of structural (viaB) and functional (viaA) additives at exceptional chromosomal locations. Felix and Pitt (1934) observed that Typhi traces cultivated from the blood of typhoid fever patients have been in agglutinable in O9 serum, and that the pathogenicity of O-inagglutinable lines of Typhi grow to be more than that of O-agglutinable strains of Typhi.

The subsequent observations examined VI’s pathogenicity and protecting roles:

Typhi Vi+ (and Paratyphi C) traces have a decrease LD50 in mice than Vi- traces.

Mice are included in competition to Typhi contamination after energetic immunisation with VI from Typhi or other serotypes (but now not Paratyphi C)

Volunteers exposed to Vi+ Typhi lines have a higher incidence of ailment, which consist of bacteremia and fever, than those exposed to Vi- strains.

Typhi and Paratyphi C isolates from the blood of typhoid or enteric fever sufferers are constantly Vi+ [13].

Suceptibility towards antimicrobial organisms

Till around nineteen sixty, maximum number of salmonellae have been vulnerable towards a huge spectrum of antimicrobial treatments, however after nineteen sixty two, adaptability has emerged in salmonellae all across the planet, often plasmidmediated. Antibiotic resistance's relative relevance, as well as the serotypes in which it occurs, varies by state. As an example, adaptability is commonly present in serotypes related to taurine creatures, along with Typhimurium, however not so common among serotypes related to fowl, which include Enteritidis, in advanced Western european countries such as the United Kingdom [14,15].

Resistance to Typhi-murium can be concentrated in a small wide variety of phage types, along with defined phage kinds (DT) 29, 204c, and 104, while still being not so common in phage kinds related to chicken, consisting of DTs nine, 10, and. In comparison, adaptability is recognized in more than one serotypes in many growing countries, and those serotypes are clearly usually related to principal outbursts of salmonellosis in Homo sapiens without any involvement of any other glaring creature [16-22].


Salmonella infections are frequently asymptomatic, despite the fact that scientific times would possibly have a wide variety of symptoms. Meat, specially hen or pig, and eggs, as well as their products, are the maximum commonplace assets of contamination.

Salmonella can get into the food chain at any step alongside the manner. Salmonellae's number one reservoir is the gastrointestinal system of mammals and birds, however they can survive or even reproduce in a selection of exterior habitats.

Antimicrobial usage in veterinary medication and animal production has been a source of competition for almost as long as the use itself. Antibacterial drugs given to animals for increase merchandising, preventative purposes, or remedy purpose an increase in the frequency of antibiotic resistant lines isolated from the animals, in line with clean information. Those germs may be transmitted to people in a selection of methods.


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Author Info

Sushmita Sharma* and Gargi Mude

Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, DattaMeghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed to be University), Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, Maharashtra, India

Received: 08-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JRMDS-22-66195; , Pre QC No. JRMDS-22-66195 (PQ); Editor assigned: 10-Jun-2022, Pre QC No. JRMDS-22-66195 (PQ); Reviewed: 24-Jun-2022, QC No. JRMDS-22-66195; Revised: 29-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JRMDS-22-66195 (R); Published: 06-Jul-2022