Traditional use of medicinal herbs in Asteraceae family for treatment of hypertension: A review
Recently, arterial hypertension (AHT) or high blood pressure is considered as one of the most frequent illness condition around the world especially in developing countries. Asteraceae is a well-known family of flowering plants. So far the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of a large number of plants in this family have proven; therefore in the present study we decided to review the some plants of this family that are traditionally used to treat hypertension around the world. The obtained results of the present review investigation demonstrated that 29 medicinal herbs were found that traditionally used to treat hypertension around the world. The most parts of these plants are leave and root; whereas these medicinal herbs are most commonly used in countries of Asian and African such as Iran, Pakistan, India and South Africa, etc. The obtained findings revealed that medicinal herbs in Asteraceae family are globally used to treat and reduce hypertension. The obtained findings revealed that medicinal herbs in Asteraceae family are globally used to treat and reduce hypertension. This results suggested that the plants in this family may be considered as alternative agents in the treatment of hypertension; of course after the evaluation of their toxicity in clinical models; however further investigations are required to clear the accurate anti-hypertensive mechanisms as well as toxicity of these plants in human subjects.
Hypertension, Anti-hypertensive, Herbal medicines, Asteraceae, Traditional medicine
Recently, arterial hypertension (AHT) or high blood pressure is considered as one of the most frequent illness condition around the world especially in developing countries . Based on the World Health Organization, AHT was defined as a health condition that causes a continuous increase in blood pressure (BP) inside the arteries of people . Although the disease may be asymptomatic, it can have serious and even fatal complications such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, angina, myocardial infarction, development of thrombosis, and cerebral hemorrhage if treatment is not provided [3,4]. At present there are two main way to treat AHT around the world, (i) use of the synthetic drugs such as diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, etc., (ii) changing lifestyle such as regular exercise, reducing salt intake, maintaining the ideal weight, etc. [5-7]. Since the use of these synthetic drugs has different side effects, the tendency toward the use of natural products such as high-performance medicinal herbs and low complications is increasing among the world's people today [8-11].
Based on the previous reviews, there are a large number of medicinal herbs are applied to treat AHT which indicating considerable efficacy and lower side effects in comparison to the current synthetic agents [12-16]. Asteraceae is a well-known family of flowering plants. So far the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of a large number of plants in this family have proven ; therefore in the present study we decided to review the some plants of this family that are traditionally used to treat hypertension around the world.
Materials and Methods
In this review, we used a number of databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Google scholar EMBASE, Scopus and directory of open access journals (DOAJ) to recognize all published articles on the subject. Our search was carried out based on the combinations of the some key words and or their equivalents; “hypertension”, “blood pressure”, “antihypertensive”, “ethnobotany”, “medicinal plants”, “traditional medicine”, “Asteraceae”, and also any individual herb name in this family cited in the hypertension literature. Moreover, “gray" or "opaque" literature (technical reports, conference proceedings and dissertations) were not used in this review.
The obtained results of the present review investigation demonstrated that 29 medicinal herbs were found that traditionally used to treat hypertension around the world. The most parts of these plants are leave and root; whereas these medicinal herbs are most commonly used in countries of Asian and African such as Iran, Pakistan, India and South Africa, etc. Table 1 shows the medicinal plants that traditionally used to treat hypertension around the world.
|Plants||Growth form||Part(s) of used||Distinct|
|Achillea millefolium L.||Shrub||Shoot|||
|Allium ursinum L.||Herb||Shoot|||
|Anthemis cotula L.||Herb||Flower|||
|Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd||Shrub||Leaves||[21,22]|
|Artemisia annua L.||Shrub||Flower|||
|Artemisia vulgaris L.||Shrub||Leaves|||
|Artemisia parviflora Roxb. ex D.Don||Shrub||Leaves|||
|Chrysocoma ciliata L||Shrub||Leaves, roots|||
|Cichorium intybus L.||Herb||Leaves|||
|Conyza scabrida DC.||Shrub||Leaves||[21,25]|
|Dicerothamnus rhinocerotis (L.f.)||Shrub||Leaves, stem|||
|Dicoma anomala (Sond).||Herb||Leaves, roots||[25,26]|
|Dicoma capensis Less.||Herb||Leaves, twigs, roots|||
|Eriocephalus africanus L.||Shrub||Leaves|||
|Elytropappus rhinocerotis (L.f.)||Shrub||Leaves|||
|Euryops abrotanifolius (L.) DC.||Shrub||Leaves, stems|||
|Galinsoga parviflora Cav.||Herb||Leaves|||
|Gundelia Tournefortii L.||Herb||Root|||
|Helichrysum crispum L.||Herb||Leaves, roots|||
|Helichrysum odoratissimum L.||Herb||Leaves, roots|||
|Inula royleana DC.||Herb||Leaves|||
|Nepeta erecta (Royle ex Benth.)||Herb||Leaves|||
|Schkuhria pinnata Lam.||Herb||Whole plant|||
|Senecio bupleuroides D.C||Shrub||Leaves|||
|Senecio serratuloides D.C||Herb||Leaves, roots|||
|Senecio inornatus D.C||Herb/small shrub||Leaves, roots|||
|Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.||Shrub||Flower, stem and root|||
|Tragopogon aureus Boiss.||Herb||Leaves and fruit|||
|Tridax procumbens L.||Herb||Leaves|||
Table 1: The medicinal plants that traditionally used to treat hypertension around the world.
Hypertension as one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases considered a significant public health concern, with a worldwide frequency of nearly 40%. Hypertension is defined a rise in systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm/hg; while diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm/Hg distinctly or together [37-39].
According to the available documents, humans used medicinal plants for thousands of years to treat their illnesses around the world. In recent years, the use of multiple medications for the treatment of hypertension, as well as increased reports of some serious side effects in the use of these drugs has led to more interest among people around the world in the use of natural products, especially medicinal plants, in recent years . In the present study we decided to review the some plants of Asteraceae family that are traditionally used to treat hypertension in Iran. The obtained results of the present review investigation demonstrated that 29 medicinal herbs in Asteraceae family were traditionally used to treat hypertension around the world. The most parts of these plants are leave and root; whereas these medicinal herbs are most commonly used in countries of Asian and African such as Iran, Pakistan, India and South Africa, etc.
Based on the previous phytochemical investigations on plants from this family, the main compounds were flavonoids, terpenes, polyphenols, and flavonoids. Reviews have shown that polyphenols have been considered as a therapeutic agent against a number of diseases such as cardiovascular; whereas it can play a preventive role for hypertension [41-45]. Studies also prove that flavonoides as one of the main compounds in the plants of Asteraceae family were mainly related with lower coronary heart disease mortality .
Sesquiterpene as terpenes derivatives which are present in Asteraceae family have more than a few thousand compounds that these components are related a large number of biological and pharmacological properties such as antitumor, antibacterial, cardiotonic and antiinflammatory effects and relax smooth muscles [47-50].
Another component that exists in plants of Asteraceae family is polystyrenes that containing nearly 1500 secondary metabolites. So far several biological activities have been related to these components Polystyrenes exert considerable toxic side effects against fungi, bacteria, breast carcinoma cells. These compounds also exert anti-platelet aggregation properties [51,52]. Therefore, it can suggest that anti-hypertensive activity of these plants in Asteraceae family is associated to these components.
The obtained findings revealed that medicinal herbs in Asteraceae family are globally used to treat and reduce hypertension. This results suggested that the plants in this family may be considered as alternative agents in the treatment of hypertension; of course after the evaluation of their toxicity in clinical models; however further investigations are required to clear the accurate antihypertensive mechanisms as well as toxicity of these plants in human subjects.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.
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2Department of Reproductive Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
3Department of Cardiology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
Citation: Massumeh Niazi, Fatemeh Yari, Amir Shakarami, Traditional use of medicinal herbs in Asteraceae family for treatment of hypertension: A review , J Res Med Dent Sci, 2019, 7(2): 6-10
Received Date: Jan 21, 2019 / Accepted Date: Mar 01, 2019 / Published Date: Mar 30, 2019