An In Vitro Study of the Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles against Different Oral and Dental Pathogenic Species Isolated from HIV/AIDS Patients
Introduction: Human oral species colonize the teeth, tongue, oral mucosa, hard palate, carious lesions and periodontal pocket. Nowadays, antibiotic resistance and invasive fungal infections has become a worldwide problem in public health and biofilm forming plays a key role in these issues.
Aim: In this study, the augmented use of Iron oxide nanoparticles and their status as emerging therapeutic applicants has motivated researchers to the evaluation of the antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of these nanoparticles against different oral and dental pathogenic species isolated from immunodeficient patients.
Materials and methods: A total of 12 immunodeficient patients’ samples were collected for this study using sterilized curettes. Microbial and fungal agents were isolated and identified using standard methods. Commercially obtained nanoparticles were examined using SEM and their size and structure were documented. Then, the multi-drug resistant strains were identified and the effects of IONPs on biofilm associated genes of these strains were evaluated using Real time PCR method.
Results: The age range of the participants was between 37 to 49 years with mean age of 43 ± 3.21 years. Finally, two multidrug resistant species of C. albicans and S. mutans were identified. RT-PCR examination showed down regulated ALS2 gene expression in C. albicans (-6.46-fold changes, p=0.007) and GtfB gene in S. mutans (-9.26-fold changes, p=0.001) as compared to a housekeeping gene upon exposure to NPs.
Conclusion: Iron oxide nanoparticles showed antibiofilm activities and effectively prevent multidrug resistant C. albicans and S. mutans strains to form biofilms. These findings suggest that IONPs could be embedded into matrices or materials used for fabrication of dentures, orthodontic appliances and dentistry devices to avoid colonization, adherence and biofilm formation of fungal and bacterial agents.