Apical Peri-Implantitis: Etiology, Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment: Literature Review and Case Report
Nowadays dental implants play a major role in mouth rehabilitation. Retrograde peri- implantitis is defined as a lesion at the periapical area of an osseointegrated dental implant. It can be attributed to preoperative or intraoperative factors, such as infection agents, poor surgical technique, – overheating of the bone, overloading of the implant or it can emanate from an active infection of adjacent teeth. The peri-implant lesion can be diagnosed radiographically as a radiolucent area and clinically as an erythematous, edematous area with or without pyorrhea at the apical region of the dental implant. The purpose of this review is to present the etiology of retrograde peri- implantitis, its prevention, proper diagnosis, and treatment strategies. Moreover, this review introduces a treatment protocol, including a conservative approach, different surgical approaches and supplementary local or systemic delivery of antibiotics. Prevention is strongly linked to etiology and can minimize the possibility of retrograde peri-implantitis. Although, the surgical treatment of retrograde periimplantitis is usually successful, the best treatment approach is the prevention of the disease or even early diagnosis.