Association between Ischemic Heart Disease and Dyslipidemia Among Adult Hypertensive Patients- A Case-Control Study in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Background: Hypertension is a major health problem, affecting a large population across the world. Approximately 7.5 million people die of hypertension every year worldwide.
Objective: To determine the association between Ischemic Disease Heart (IHD) and dyslipidemia among hypertensive patients.
Methods: A case-control study was conducted at the cardiology outpatient departments of Prince Sattam-Bin-Abdul-Aziz University hospital between September 2015 and February 2017. The association of ischemic heart disease (dependent variable) was assessed against dyslipidemia (independent variable). Ischemic heart disease (IHD), body mass index (BMI) and dyslipidemia were defined. The data from the patients were collected into the medical notes that were later transferred into an excel spreadsheet. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 23. Pearson's chi-square test was applied and a P-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: A total of 160 respondents were included in the study and 39.4% (n=63) had a positive history of ischemic heart disease. The average age in our study population was 49.16 ± 11.7 and average BMI was 29.11 ± 5.04. A significant correlation was noted between dyslipidemia and IHD (p=0.000; OR 3.39). It was noted that the chances of IHD with dyslipidemia were higher among individuals in the 31-50 years age group (p=0.001; OR 6.75). In addition, a statistically significant correlation was noted between the risk of IHD and dyslipidemia in overweight and obese patients.
Conclusion: The combination of hypertension and dyslipidemia is a significant risk of IHD for male gender, 31-50 years old, overweight, obese, diabetics or smokers.