Association between Occlusal Forces and Periodontal Conditions in Untreated Chronic Periodontitis Using T-Scan: A Retrospective Study
Author(s): Subasree Soundarajan* and Priyalochana Gajendran
Objective: To determine the association between occlusal forces and periodontal conditions in untreated chronic periodontitis patients and elaborate the relevant clinical implications Methodology: Thirty subjects (15 males & 15 females) with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were recruited from the department of periodontology at Saveetha dental college and hospital from October 2020 to April 2021. Parameters assessed were - a) Probing depth at 6 sites per tooth using a William’s periodontal probe, b) Clinical attachment loss, c) Bleeding on probing (%), d) Miller’s tooth mobility index 1950, e) High occlusal forces (HOF) using T scan & f) Level of alveolar bone loss using periapical radiograph. Results: A total of 812 teeth (352 anterior teeth & 460 posterior teeth) from 30 patients (12 females & 18 males) with untreated chronic periodontitis were included in the study. The Chi square test showed that there is no significant association of occlusal forces with probing depth, and clinical attachment loss, where the p value was > 0.05. Whereas, Association of occlusal forces with teeth type, level of alveolar bone and tooth mobility showed statistical significance with a p value<0.05.Therefore, mandibular posteriors showed high occlusal forces followed by mandibular anterior, maxillary posteriors and maxillary anterior. Teeth taking up high occlusal forces showed bone loss upto apical third, whereas teeth with low occlusal forces showed bone loss upto cervical third. Teeth taking up high occlusal forces showed grade III mobility, whereas teeth with low occlusal forces showed grade I mobility. Among all the teeth groups, mandibular posteriors (31.58%) showed high occlusal forces, followed by mandibular anterior (28.07%), maxillary posteriors (22.81%), and maxillary anterior (17.54%). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this research, the current findings indicate that posterior teeth with high occlusal force in patients with untreated chronic periodontitis could represent occlusal trauma-related periodontal conditions, which may increase the risk of further periodontal destruction. The current findings can help clinicians better diagnose occlusal trauma and related periodontal conditions for better patient management and treatment outcomes.