Clinico Pathological Correlation of Salivary TNF-Alpha Level in Hypertensive Patients under Treatment
Background: TNF- alpha is the key pro-inflammatory cytokines and plays a vital role in the progress of hypertension. At present, hypertensive patients are under treatment with Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, or diuretics. Recent literature revealed that TNF-alpha levels were suppressed in chronic renal failure and congestive heart failure after treatment with amlodipine and captopril. Aim: The aim of this current study is to determine whether there is any correlation of levels of salivary TNF- alpha level in hypertension along with the action of Calcium channel blockers and ACE inhibitors. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional pilot study in 10 patients with confirmed hypertension. They were categorized into two study groups namely ACE inhibitors and Calcium channel blockers based on their treatment. The salivary samples were collected in an Eppendorf tube passively and samples were then centrifuged for 5minutes at 5000g to get the supernatant. Salivary TNF-alpha was analysed in patients by ELISA kits. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis using an independent t-test. Test values of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Salivary TNF- alpha level in hypertensive patients treated with ACE inhibitors was significantly found to be 57.1 ± 13.26 (ng/l) while treated with Calcium channel blockers was significantly found to be 16.12 ± 2.161 (ng/l). Conclusion: Salivary TNF- alpha in hypertensive patients treated with ACE inhibitors was significantly higher when compared to hypertensive patients treated with Calcium channel blockers. From these findings, Calcium channel blocker-treated hypertensive patients suppressed TNF- alpha production, which leads to possible prevention of the progression of hypertension. Further, the use of easily accessible salivary TNF- alpha could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for the disease.