Clinocopathological Study on Gastro Endoscopic Biopsies in Patients with Special Reference to Helicobacter Pylori
Chronic gastritis is the common problem worldwide. The common etiologic agents implicated were smoking, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), spicy food and an influence of personality status. But now it has been proved that in addition to these, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacterial infective agent, is the major and most common cause. H. pylori gastritis (HPG) is caused by infection of the antral mucosa with H. pylori. Most patients with HPG are asymptomatic. In many cases the antrum appears normal to the endoscopist. Lymphoid follicles with germinal centers are characteristic of an infection with H. pylori. The organisms can be seen in routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue when numerous organisms are present. Special stains are useful when few organisms are present. Stains that may be used to highlight the organisms are Giemsa stain, Warthin¬ Starry silver stain, Gram stain, and immunocytochemical stains. In the present study 3 stains were compared for their efficacy – H&E, Giemsa and Warthin¬ Starry silver stain. It can be concluded from the present study that, Warthin-Starry silver stain was found to be the best stain for the detection of low density H. pylori infection. Giemsa stain can be used for detection of H. pylori infection of moderate to high density. Moreover, presence of neutrophils & lymphoid follicles might be taken as an indirect evidence for H. pylori infection.