Comparative Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study of Oral Schwannomas and Neurofibromas
It is essential to differentiate between oral schwannomas and neurofibromas. Depending on the neoplasm type, the surgeon can decide the optimal treatment approach. Additionally, the potential of malignant transformation and the association with neurofibromatosis type1 should be considered in neurofibromas. Twenty-two cases diagnosed as schwannomas and neurofibromas were retrieved from the Pathology Laboratory at the College of the Dentistry/ University of Baghdad. Immuno-histochemical analysis was performed using antibodies S-100, EMA, and Calretinin. The mean age of the patients with neurofibroma was 38.83, whereas it was 29.5 among those with schwannoma. Women were more frequently affected by schwannoma, while no gender predominance was noted in neurofibroma cases. The tongue was the most prevalent site for schwannoma, while the alveolar ridge was the most common neurofibroma location. The immunohistochemical analysis showed a stronger and more diffuse immunoreactivity of the S-100 in schwannomas than neurofibromas. The EMA reactivity was absent in most neurofibromas, while a weak expression was observed in schwannomas, especially by the capsular area. Moreover, a variable reactivity to calretinin was demonstrated by schwannomas; however, an absence of expression in neurofibroma was noted. We concluded that combined immunohistochemical evaluation of S-100, EMA, and Calretinin could be regarded as a reliable method to differentiate between them.