Correlation between Lipid Profile and Blood Pressure Levels: A Comparative Analysis between Healthy Controls, Type 1 Diabetics and Type 2 Diabetics
Author(s): Sana Bilal*, Uzma Raza, Zia Ullah Khan, Hamida Ghulam Hussain, Aatkah Naseer, Adeeba Salahuddin, Tabassum Fatima and Muzainah Khan
Objective: Dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factor of cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. The distinctive aspects of diabetic dyslipidemia include high plasma triglyceride concentration, low concentration of HDL cholesterol and increased level of small densely packed LDL-cholesterol particles. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the lipid abnormalities with blood pressure in control, type 1 and 2 Diabetes mellitus. Methodology: This was an observational, descriptive study conducted in diabetic outpatient department (OPD) of Jinnah post graduate medical institute, Karachi by using non-probability convenient sampling technique. The duration of study was about six months. The study sample comprised of 30 participants each in the control, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes groups. Blood pressure was measured and blood samples were drawn to assess the biochemical diagnostic parameters such as: Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride [TG]). Chi-square test and Pearson's correlation was used to determine the variables association with T2DM and T1DM. Results: The study results showed that diastolic blood pressure level was significantly correlated only with the triglyceride level (ρ=-0.419, p=0.021). It was also revealed that among the type 2 diabetes group, systolic blood pressure level was significantly correlated only with the HDL level (ρ=0.454, p=0.012) whereas the diastolic blood pressure level was not significantly correlated with any parameter of the lipid profile while among the type 1 diabetes group, both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were not significantly correlated with any parameter of the lipid profile. Conclusion: This study concluded that systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in dyslipidemic patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, among them low HDL was frequently observed. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with Triglycerides level in control group.