Dental Caries Status in Relation to Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Genotype (DQ and DR) among Institutionalized Autistic Adolescents in Baghdad City, Iraq
Background: Autism spectrum disorder is an enduring neuro-developmental disorder categorized by qualitative irregularities in mutual social communications. The analyses of dental caries incidence in monozygotic and dizygotic twins indicate a large number of different genes contributions. The human leukocyte antigens play a major role in immune response of an individual. This study aimed to estimate human leukocyte antigen class II genotype (DQ and DR) in relation to dental caries severity among institutionalized autistic adolescents.
Materials and Methods: Two groups were included in this study, first group had 40 institutionalized autistic adolescents and second consisted of 40 apparently healthy school adolescents control group with age range (12 years-15 years old, only males) selected with regard to dental caries severity. Each group subdivided into two groups: high caries group (20 adolescents, DMFT ≥ 6 caries) and free group (20 adolescents, DMFT=0)). The amplification of the selected human leukocyte antigen alleles (DQ2, DQ4, DQ5, DQ6 and DR4) was carried out by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers, the products of were electrophoresed and analysed in agarose gel. The data of current study was analysed using SPSS version 21.
Results: The percentage of human leukocyte antigen -DQ2 and -DQ6 were higher in study group than control group with significant difference. Within study group, human leukocyte antigen -DQ2, -DQ6 and DR4 were higher in caries free subgroup than high caries subgroup with statistical significant difference regarding human leukocyte antigen -DQ2.
Conclusion: Human leukocyte antigen -DQ2, -DQ6 were more presented in autistic group. Human leukocyte antigen -DQ2, - DQ6 and DR4 were related to low level of caries activity in autistic adolescents.