Depression Status in Relation to Gingival Status and Salivary Magnesium Among 17 Years Old Secondary School Female in Baghdad City/Iraq
Background: Depression is a low-mood, activity-aversion disorder. It may influence the emotions, actions and sense of well-being of an individual. This may impact oral safety when oral hygiene procedures are ignored and having Cariogenic diet that contributes to a higher probability of oral diseases.
This research aimed to test the effect of state of depression on gingival health condition Among 17-year-old high school female Pupils in relation to salivary magnesium.
Materials and Methods: Total sample including 500 students selected from schools in Baghdad city/ Iraq. Consent form was obtained from the ethical approval committee in college of Dentistry/University of Baghdad. All were subjected to Children Depression Inventory questionnaire by Kovacs in 2011. Plaque and gingival indices by Loe and Silness in 1964 were used to assess the oral health status. Subgroups were selected from high and low grade of depression to analyze magnesium.
Results: The percentage of occurrence of depression was 100%. The mean value of plaque and gingival indices were higher in high depression grade. For salivary magnesium concentration, the mean value was higher in low grade. For plaque and gingival indices, magnesium correlated positively in low grade, but in high grade, plaque index correlated negatively while gingival index correlated positively.
Discussion: UNICEF world report in 1991 that “Iraq is the most traumatized county of war ever described” and that “a majority of the Iraqi would suffer from severe psychological problems throughout their lives". Depression supports a chronic neural and immune dysfunction, causes changes in health-related behaviors and antidepressive medication may lead to Changes In circulation of the gingives and changes in saliva composition, which may lead to an exacerbation of periodontitis.
Conclusion: Depression has biological plausible association with oral health, it increases gingival inflammation also affects the normal constituents of saliva.