Effect of Topical Melatonin Application on the Peri-Implant Proximal Bone Level and Cortical Plate Thickness (Pilot Clinical Trial)
Introduction: The success rate of dental implant DI is determined by many factors including the maintenance of marginal bone height. Recently, melatonin (MLT) shows a positive effect on bone remodeling, formation, and enhancing bone density. Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of topical MLT application during DI placement on the proximal bone height and cortical plate thickness by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: This study was a single-blinded trial following a split-mouth study design with a delayed placement protocol. Selected patients received DI that was placed at contralateral sites that were randomly assigned as “Study” at which 1.2 mg of MLT powder topically applied in the osteotomy site before DI insertion. The other side was the “Control” group where DI placed conventionally. CBCT was taken for the DI at baseline data and after 6 months. Results: For the Control, there was a significant mesial and distal marginal bone reduction (P<0.05) at the end of the trial. While for the Study no significant mesial bone loss was observed; however, the distal bone level showed a significant bone loss (P< 0.05) at the endpoint. Analysis of cortical bone thickness at the buccal and lingual/palatal aspect indicated a significant reduction at the end of the trial in association with the Control. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in association with Study sites. Conclusion: Topically applied melatonin powder showed a positive effect on maintaining the proximal bone level and cortical plate thickness around the dental implant.