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Mutations: Its Impact on Diagnosis and Development of Vaccines | Abstract

Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science
eISSN No. 2347-2367 pISSN No. 2347-2545

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Mutations: Its Impact on Diagnosis and Development of Vaccines

Author(s): Praful Bhargava, Abhishek Joshi*, Ashok mehedale

Abstract

The Coronaviridae family contains a significant number of lineages seen in a variety of mammals and birds. The propensity
of Betacoronaviridiae to switch hosts often suggests that ‘SARS CoV-2’ is clearly a zoonotic virus. ‘SARS COV-2’ is an enclosed
positive stranded RNA virus that belongs to Nidovirales group. The amount, size, and the type of structural proteins varied
significantly amongst Nidovirus groups. In case of COVID-19 virus mutations can be beneficial or deleterious. These can be
addition, deletion, inversion. When a virus circulates unchecked and immunisation rates are low or if one dose of a two dose
vaccine are given then probability of mutation increases. Mutation rate depends on virus but is affected by natural selection,
genetic drift, and other processes like recombination. Various sorts of trials have been undertaken thus far in order to
produce an antiviral medication for COVID-19. However some monoclonal antibodies like bevlizumab have been recently
approved for COVID-19 infections. The viral genome is sensitive to antigenic shift and antigenic drift while propagating
across heterogeneous populace in a variety of conditions. This could lead to the establishment of a resistant strain in the
future. Thus causing difficulty in diagnosis and development of vaccines. Various sorts of trials have been undertaken thus
far in order to produce an antiviral medication for COVID-19, however none have been successful. Recently there have been
much development in field of vaccine development by various companies likes Zydus Cadilla, Pfizer etc. which have showed
promising results in providing immunity to common individual against various strains but with on-going and fast
mutations changes only time will tell the efficacy of these vaccines against new strains

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