Mutations: Its Impact on Diagnosis and Development of Vaccines
Author(s): Praful Bhargava*
The Coronaviridae family contains a significant number of lineages seen in a variety of mammals and birds. The propensity of Betacoronaviridiae to switch hosts often suggests that ?SARS CoV-2? is clearly a zoonotic virus. ?SARS COV-2? is an enclosed positive stranded RNA virus that belongs to Nidovirales group. The amount, size, and the type of structural proteins varied significantly amongst Nidovirus groups. In case of COVID-19 virus mutations can be beneficial or deleterious. These can be addition, deletion, inversion. When a virus circulates unchecked and immunisation rates are low or if one dose of a two dose vaccine are given then probability of mutation increases. Mutation rate depends on virus but is affected by natural selection, genetic drift, and other processes like recombination. Various sorts of trials have been undertaken thus far in order to produce an antiviral medication for COVID-19. However some monoclonal antibodies like bevlizumab have been recently approved for COVID-19 infections. The viral genome is sensitive to antigenic shift and antigenic drift while propagating across heterogeneous populace in a variety of conditions. This could lead to the establishment of a resistant strain in the future. Thus causing difficulty in diagnosis and development of vaccines. Various sorts of trials have been undertaken thus far in order to produce an antiviral medication for COVID-19, however none have been successful. Recently there have been much development in field of vaccine development by various companies likes Zydus Cadilla, Pfizer etc. which have showed promising results in providing immunity to common individual against various strains but with on-going and fast mutations changes only time will tell the efficacy of these vaccines against new strains.