Potential Effect of Gold Nanoparticles against Streptococcus mitis (Primary Periodontal Colonizer)
Background: Periodontal diseases are an infection caused by many factors include different bacterial pattern. Biofilm is the main reason for periodontal disease that consists of many microorganisms. Streptococci of Mitis group such as Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, are early colonizers within development of dental biofilms, which is the cause of periodontal disease. The periodontal diseases treatment focuses primarily on the reduction of the microorganism count thus antimicrobials agents has been used as an adjunct to conventional therapy. Multi-drug resistance within the treatment of infectious diseases is a growing problem and also the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has created antibiotic resistance for several human microorganisms. Recently, nanoparticles have significant attention for medical applications because of their antimicrobial effectiveness. Gold nanoparticles (Au Nps) were considered as potential agent to control oral bacterial infection because of its optimal antibacterial activity and non-acute cytotoxic effects on human cells. In this study, gold Nps with average particles size (43 nm) will be use. The objective of this study is to investigate the antibacterial effect of gold nanoparticles against Streptococcus mitis in dental plaque.
Materials and Methods: The first step of present study was tacking aerobic and anaerobic plaque samples from 10 patients with periodontal disease. Second step was morphological and microscopicale examination in addition to the biochemical tests and vatic 2 machines were used to confirm identification of Streptococcus mitis. The next steps were synthesis of gold nanoparticles by chemical method (seed growth method) and testing its characterization. Finally test the potential antimicrobial effect of gold nanoparticles on Streptococcus mitis. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation, LSD were done for the analysis of MIC of (gold nanoparticles) against (Streptococcus mitis Bacteria). Significance of all the statistical tests were determined at p<0.05 using SPSS (Statistical Package for SocialScience) version 22 software.
Results: The gold NP in (100 ppm) concentration has the same antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mitis, and there is no significant difference between them, (p>0.05).
Conclusions: Gold nanoparticles were effective against Streptococcus mitis similarly to chlorhexidine when it was used in high concentration as antimicrobial agent.